Monday, January 27, 2020
Brand elements for managing fast food restaurant Brand Management is the method of applying activities to products, and brands which will help enhance and maintain brand equity. Brand management is a very big topic, out of it comes many roots and are called brand elements, such as brand equity, brand research, customer based brand equity model, designing the brand, brand loyalty, brand advertising, brand pricing and etc. A brand which is the logo, name, symbol, and slogan, is supervised by a brand manager. For example, nestle has many products such as tea, milk, and ice cream, each brand of these has a brand manager who is responsible for it. Brand can also be physical feeling such as packaging, physical appearance and guarantees, not just a name that pops up into a consumer mind (Aaker and Biel 1993:33) .In 1980s people started to realize that the weight of the company is measured by its brand, and not by its physical assets (Kapferer 2008:18), Brand success is measured by its ability to maintain in a good position in the market a nd never leave a customer mind. The five stages of brand cycle measures whether the brand is succeeding or not: (Benson ,2006) The brand definition. The awareness experience. The buying experience. The using and service experience. The membership experience. (Benson ,2006) In order to define the brand and how its perceived by customers there are certain components which will help brand management understand how the brands are defined by the consumer: Who: the primary and valuable target customer for the product or service. What: features, capabilities, and offerings that are being offered. Why: customer make use of the benefit provided by the brand. How: the approach makes use of delivering the promise. (Benson,2006) Brand management must be careful when setting brands in different countries, because, brands maybe viewed differently by people according to their cultures, beliefs, values, and traditions. All of these points should be taken into consideration carefully because they can lead to failure or success of the band. Brand managers should study carefully where they are trying to position their brand, and who are the consumers that are going to be targeted, so that any misunderstanding of the brand could be avoided. Here are examples of how brand names are perceived differently from country to another: In Spain Mitsubishi Pajero is an insulting word while in Arab countries its a normal word. So here there is a problem which needs brand managers to get involved inorder to settle this misunderstanding. McDonalds all around the world is in a red color, but there is a state in USA were they perceive the red color as violence, so in order to solve this problem, McDonalds changed their color in this state into blue. Literature Review Brand Equity First of all I will define what is brand equity which is the value and weight of the brand to the consumer and how they are loyal to it. Perception and feelings toward a product and its performance is represented by brands, so brands are not just symbols and names they are the fundamentals for a company to acquire a strong relationship with the consumer. (Kotler 2008:230). Building strong brands is very important inorder to have the ability to survive and succeed in the market and be able to compete with other strong brands, their is a process to follow which will assist in building a strong brand they are : Brand positioning Brand managers their mission is to try positioning their brand in the consumers mind. The positioning of the brand comes at three levels which are attributes, benefits, beliefs and values. Attributes are the weakest level to position a brand (Kotler 2008:231). These days most of the competitors are copying each other attributes, but the thing they are missing here is that consumers no longer interested in the attributes it self but they are interested in what will the attributes help them to acheive. Benefits are the out comes that the consumer will get when using a certain brand. Beliefs and values are related to emotions, its about how purchasing these products empowers its socially conscious customer (Kotler 2008:232). Brand Name Selection A well choosen brand name can give a push to a brands success, but to find a name which will help in the success is very difficult (Kotler 2008:232). To choose a brand name we should take these following points into consideration: Simplisity in pronouncing the brand name, memorizing, and recognizing it. (Kotler 2008:232) A brand name should be unique. Simplisity in transalating it to other languages and at the same time avoiding, the misunderstanding of the names in different countries. Expanding the brand name by, widning the activities of the company. Brand sponsorship Brand sponsorship is very important, because it creates a kind of attraction and spreads the brand world wide, sponsoship could be involved in many events: Matches Concerts Tv. Show program Football players kit Brand Development When companies are willing to develop their brands, Their are ways to do it: Line extension: it happens when companies would like to extend the existing brand names to new, colors, sizes, forms, flavors, and etc (Kotler 2008:237). Brand extensions: extending the brands that are avaible right now to new products in a new category (Kotler 2008:237). Customer Based Brand Equity Their are questions that should be asked, regarding howa create a strong brand? And what other ways we could use to build strong brands? The CBBE model approaches brand equity from the perspective of the consumer, whether the consumer is an individual or an organization. Understanding the needs and wants of consumer and organization, and being able to satisfy them is the heart of successful marketing (Keller2008:48). D:Folderspictures83888258_80b2635f61.jpg . (Haddad 2008:24) The Customer based brand Equity was designed to be: Comprehensive ( Haddad 2008: 22) Cohesive ( Haddad 2008:22) Up to date ( Haddad 2008:22) Actionable ( Haddad 2008:22) Identifying each part of the CBBE pyramid: Salience: the brand awareness measurement. (Keller 2008:60) Performance: are the products and service meeting the customer. (Keller 2008:65) Imagery: are the ways in which the brand meets the psychological and social need of the customer. (Keller 2008:65) Judgments: the evaluation and the opinion of the customer towards the brand. (Keller 2008:67) Feelings: the response and reaction of the brand towards the customer. ( Keller 2008:68) Resonance: The relationship that the customer feels with the brand. ( Keller 2008:72) Brand Research Brand research is used to identify the feeling of the consumers towards the brand, which customers purchase the product, what other brands are competing with your brand. The need to know about the present customers: Why they choose your brand? Are they going to repurchase it? How are they using the product? Where do your customers purchase the products? (Haddad 2008:11) The best way to describe the consumers is through the segmentation variables which are geographic (nations, countries, neighbors, city), demographic (education, age, sex, income), psychographic (The market is being divided based on the personality) (belch2009: 51), Behavioristic( the consumers are divided into groups according to their loyalties, buying of the product, and usage) (belch2009: 52 ). There are other methods used to make research: Qualitative research: exploring the areas where knowledge doesnt exist. ( Tench Yeomans 2009: 204) Advantages Disadvantages Identify unknown information It takes a lot of time Provide insight into motivation Requires large amount of money Quantitative research: The results are expressed in numbers. ( Tench Yeomans 2009: 204) Advantages Disadvantage Generate comparable results Could mislead to irrelevant directions Clients have a higher percentage of accepting it Cant go into deeper analysis Brand Advertising Brand advertising increases the recognition of the consumers towards the brand; its also the generator which helps the business to succeed. Most of the owners, who own businesses, think of the brand as a logo with color and a slogan. They dont understand the relation between the brand and the consumer. The brands that really succeed are the ones which have emotional relationship with the consumer. So successful brand advertising is about how to make the consumer reach the emotional relationship with the brand. Owners might feel that their brand is credible and trustworthy but this is not enough, because they cant think from their own perspective, trustworthiness should reach customers in order to achieve brand loyalty and a strong brand. (Long, 2009) Forms of brand advertising: Television. Radio. Print ads. Internet. Bill boards. Banners. Relating brand elements to McDonalds( restaurant) How does McDonalds build brand equity? Advertising, building relationship with consumers, building trust, good service, trying to make our products affordable as much as possible to everyone, participating in community activities and fund raising, all of these factors will improve our image and create a strong brand. How are you going to build a strong brand using the brand strategy decisions? Brand positioning comes in three levels as I mentioned above, attribute (McDonalds are not just concentrating on their food attributes because, there are many junk food businesses who produce same attributes). Benefits (are what McDonalds concentrating on, they care about their food taste, freshness, place neatness and cleanness, and the satisfaction of customers after finishing their meal). Beliefs and values (in Egypt McDonalds dont offer pork meat because its against people values and beliefs). Brand name selection McDonalds is an easy name which could be memorized its very simple and kind of funny, this brand name differs from other fast food brand names, because McDonalds is trying to be different than other brand names, by sending message to consumers which is. Consumers can eat all they want, but they can have healthy life by controlling their food. Brand sponsorship McDonalds sponsors football teams, world cup 2010, it concentrates more on athletic activities and events so that they can create a healthy brand image. Brand development McDonalds are always trying to develop their products by having the best taste and reasonable price, developing their service by having the fastest home delivery service in Egypt. Developing their ads by making it more funnier and simple. How can McDonalds create successful customer based brand equity (CBBE?) Salience: consumers perceived McDonalds 43% best, 43% not bad, 14% bad. Performance: McDonalds target all consumer ages, and they also target class A, B, and C. Sandwiches prices The service in McDonalds is very fast in different ways, its the fastest delivery in Egypt, fastest problem response, and one of the best employee customer relationship. The style and design of the place is very clean, neat, and makes you happy and comfortable while sitting inside. Imagery McDonalds in Egypt started 15 years ago, and established 60 restaurants till now. McDonalds offer their products according to consumers values, beliefs, and cultures. For example in Ramadan, McDonalds offer iftar menu for people who are fasting. In Christmas they offer siyamy menu which is fillet fish. There are obstacles which are being faced trying to adopt another countries food, in Thailand McDonalds offer shrimps sandwiches because its their traditional food over there, you cant make consumers in Egypt adopt seafood sandwiches from McDonalds because its not their traditional food over here. Feelings McDonalds are doing their best to provide excitement and fun for their customers, McDonalds TV. Ads are very funny, during the half time of the matches; TV ads appear so viewers are encouraged to buy meals while they are watching the match. If there is a big match between Egypt and another country McDonalds designs the place with Egyptian flags, and they have artists for people who would like to draw on their faces. Judgments according to what we have mentioned above, customers are happy because we try to meet their need in every possible way, and solve any problem they face with our food or place. McDonalds Is a credible brand because its a very strong competitor all over the world, its the second best competitor in fast food businesses after KFC. Resonance There is a strong relationship with the employees and the customers, employees are always friendly and smiling to customers so that they can make them feel welcome, and they always try to make them comfortable as much as they can. How is Qualitative research being used? Qualitative research is being used to know how consumers see our products (tastes, freshness, new products, and etc.) Service (delivery service, employees relation, and place.) How is quantitative research being used? It provides assistance to know the quantity of combos needed to be increased daily, weekly, and monthly. It also identify what type of products are consumer demanding, the sandwich double big tasty was created using the quantitative research. How do use Advertising to strengthen McDonalds brand? McDonalds advertise mostly on television using simple and funny ads which will attract customers to buy their products. They used to advertise on radio too. McDonalds uses FP7 which is the advertising agency to help them, FP7 is working with McDonalds since 15 years ago, they helped them create the delivery TV ad, and other comedy ads. Off course McDonalds sponsors Egyptian football teams such as: Ghazl el mahala El gaish El masry All of this will help improve the advertising.
Sunday, January 19, 2020
Labeling theory had its origins in Suicide, a book by French sociologist Emile Durkheim. He found that crime is not so much a violation of a penal code as it is an act that outrages society. He was the first to suggest that deviant labeling satisfies that function and satisfies society's need to control the behavior. As a contributor to American Pragmatism and later a member of the Chicago School, George Herbert Mead posited that the self is socially constructed and reconstructed through the interactions which each person has with the community. The labeling theory suggests that people obtain labels from how others view their tendencies or behaviors. Each individual is aware of how they are judged by others because he or she has attempted many different roles and functions in social interactions and has been able to gauge the reactions of those present. This theoretically builds a subjective conception of the self, but as others intrude into the reality of that individual's life, this represents objective data which may require a re-evaluation of that conception depending on the authoritativeness of the others' judgment. Family and friends may judge differently from random strangers. More socially representative individuals such as police officers or judges may be able to make more globally respected judgments. If deviance is a failure to conform to the rules observed by most of the group, the reaction of the group is to label the person as having offended against their social or moral norms of behavior. This is the power of the group: to designate breaches of their rules as deviant and to treat the person differently depending on the seriousness of the breach. The more differential the treatment, the more the individual's self-image is affected. Labeling theory concerns itself mostly not with the normal roles that define our lives, but with those very special roles that society provides for deviant behavior, called deviant roles, stigmatic roles, or social stigma. A social role is a set of expectations we have about a behavior. Social roles are necessary for the organization and functioning of any society or group. We expect the postman, for example, to adhere to certain fixed rules about how he does his job. DevianceÃ¢â¬ for a sociologist does not mean morally wrong, but rather behavior that is condemned by society. Deviant behavior can include both criminal and non-criminal activities. Investigators found that deviant roles powerfully affect how we perceive those who are assigned those roles. They also affect how the deviant actor perceives himself and his relationship to society. The deviant roles and the labels attached to them func tion as a form of social stigma. Always inherent in the deviant role is the attribution of some form of Ã¢â¬Å"pollutionÃ¢â¬ or difference that marks the labeled person as different from others. Society uses these stigmatic roles to them to control and limit deviant behavior: Ã¢â¬Å"If you proceed in this behavior, you will become a member of that group of people. Ã¢â¬ Whether a breach of a given rule will be stigmatized will depend on the significance of the moral or other tenet it represents. For example, adultery may be considered a breach of an informal rule or it may be criminalized depending on the status of marriage, morality, and religion within the community. In most Western countries, adultery is not a crime. Attaching the label Ã¢â¬Å"adultererÃ¢â¬ may have some unfortunate consequences but they are not generally severe. But in some Islamic countries, zina is a crime and proof of extramarital activity may lead to severe consequences for all concerned. Stigma is usually the result of laws enacted against the behavior. Laws protecting slavery or outlawing homosexuality, for instance, will over time form deviant roles connected with those behaviors. Those who are assigned those roles will be seen as less human and reliable. Deviant roles are the sources of negative stereotypes, which tend to support society's disapproval of the behavior. George Herbert Mead One of the founders of social interactionism, George Herbert Mead focused on the internal processes of how the mind constructs one's self-image. In Mind, Self, and Society (1934), he showed how infants come to know persons first and only later come to know things. According to Mead, thought is both a social and pragmatic process, based on the model of two persons discussing how to solve a problem. Our self-image is, in fact, constructed of ideas about what we think others are thinking about us. While we make fun of those who visibly talk to themselves, they have only failed to do what the rest of us do in keeping the internal conversation to ourselves. Human behavior, Mead stated, is the result of meanings created by the social interaction of conversation, both real and imaginary. Frank Tannenbaum Frank Tannenbaum is considered the grandfather of labeling theory. His Crime and Community (1938), describing the social interaction involved in crime, is considered a pivotal foundation of modern criminology. While the criminal differs little or not at all from others in the original impulse to first commit a crime, social interaction accounts for continued acts that develop a pattern of interest to sociologists. Tannenbaum first introduced the idea of Ã¢â¬Ëtagging'.  While conducting his studies with delinquent youth, he found that a negative tag or label often contributed to further involvement in delinquent activities. This initial tagging may cause the individual to adopt it as part of their identity. The crux of Tannenbaum's argument is that the greater the attention placed on this label, the more likely the person is to identify themselves as the label. Kerry Townsend writes about the revolution in criminology caused by Tannenbaum's work: Ã¢â¬Å"The roots of Frank TannenbaumÃ¢â¬â¢s theoretical model, known as the Ã¢â¬Å"dramatization of evilÃ¢â¬ or labeling theory, surfaces in the mid- to late-thirties. At this time, the Ã¢â¬ËNew Deal' legislation had not defeated the woes of the Great Depression, and, although dwindling, immigration into the United States continued (Sumner, 1994). 4] The social climate was one of disillusionment with the government. The class structure was one of cultural isolationism; cultural relativity had not yet taken hold. Ã¢â¬ËThe persistence of the class structure, despite the welfare reforms and controls over big business, was unmistakable. Ã¢â¬Ë The Positivist School of Criminological thought was still dominant, and in many states, the s terilization movement was underway. The emphasis on biological determinism and internal explanations of crime were the preeminent force in the theories of the early thirties. This dominance by the Positivist School changed in the late thirties with the introduction of conflict and social explanations of crime and criminalityÃ¢â¬ ¦ Ã¢â¬Å"One of the central tenets of the theory is to encourage the end of labeling process. In the words of Frank Tannenbaum, Ã¢â¬Å"the way out is through a refusal to dramatize the evilÃ¢â¬ , the justice system attempts to do this through diversion programs. The growth of the theory and its current application, both practical and theoretical, provide a solid foundation for continued popularity. : Edwin Lemert It was sociologist Edwin Lemert (1951) who introduced the concept of Ã¢â¬Å"secondary deviance. Ã¢â¬ The primary deviance is the experience connected to the overt behavior, say drug addiction and its practical demands and consequences. Secondary deviation is the role created to deal with society's condemnation of the behavior. With other sociologists of his time, he saw how all deviant acts are social acts, a result of the cooperation of society. In studying drug addiction, Lemert observed a very powerful and subtle force at work. Besides the physical addiction to the drug and all the economic and social disruptions it caused, there was an intensely intellectual process at work concerning one's own identity and the justification for the behavior: Ã¢â¬Å"I do these things because I am this way. Ã¢â¬ There might be certain subjective and personal motives that might first lead a person to drink or shoplift. But the activity itself tells us little about the person's self-image or its relationship to the activity. Lemert writes: Ã¢â¬Å"His acts are repeated and organized subjectively and transformed into active roles and become the social criteria for assigning statusÃ¢â¬ ¦.. When a person begins to employ his deviant behavior or a role based on it as a means of defense, attack, or adjustment to the overt and covert problems created by the consequent societal reaction to him, his deviation is secondaryÃ¢â¬  Howard Becker While it was Lemert who introduced the key concepts of labeling theory, it was Howard Becker who became their champion. He first began describing the process of how a person adopts a deviant role in a study of dance musicians, with whom he once worked. He later studied the identity formation of marijuana smokers. This study was the basis of his Outsiders published in 1963. This work became the manifesto of the labeling theory movement among sociologists. In his opening, Becker writes: Ã¢â¬Å"Ã¢â¬ ¦ social groups create deviance by making rules whose infraction creates deviance, and by applying those roles to particular people and labeling them as outsiders. From this point of view, deviance is not a quality of the act the person commits, but rather a consequence of the application by other of rules and sanctions to an Ã¢â¬Ëoffender. Ã¢â¬Ë The deviant is one to whom that label has been successfully applied; deviant behavior is behavior that people so label.  While society uses the stigmatic label to justify its condemnation, the deviant actor uses it to justify his actions. He wrote: Ã¢â¬Å"To put a complex argument in a few words: instead of the deviant motives leading to the deviant behavior, it is the other way around, the deviant behavior in time produces the deviant motivation. Ã¢â¬Å" Becker's immensely popular views were also subjected to a barrage of criticism, most of it blaming him for neglecting the influence of other biological, genetic effects and personal responsibility. In a later 1973 edition of his work, he answered his critics. He wrote that while sociologists, while dedicated to studying society, are often careful not to look too closely. Instead, he wrote: Ã¢â¬Å"I prefer to think of what we study as collective action. People act, as Mead and Blumer have made clearest, together. They do what they do with an eye on what others have done, are doing now, and may do in the future. One tries to fit his own line of action into the actions of others, just as each of them likewise adjusts his own developing actions to what he sees and expects others to do.  Francis Cullen reported in 1984 that Becker was probably too generous with his critics. After 20 years, his views, far from being supplanted, have been corrected and absorbed into an expanded Ã¢â¬Å"structuring perspective. Ã¢â¬Å" Albert Memmi In The Colonizer and the Colonized (1965) Albert Memmi described the deep psychological effects of the social stigma created by the domination of one group by another. He wrote: Ã¢â¬Å"The longer the oppression lasts, the more profoundly it affects him (the oppressed). It ends by becoming so familiar to him that he believes it is part of his own constitution, that he accepts it and could not imagine his recovery from it. This acceptance is the crowning point of oppression. Ã¢â¬Å" In Dominated Man (1968), Memmi turned his attention to the motivation of stigmatic labeling: it justifies the exploitation or criminalization of the victim. He wrote: Ã¢â¬Å"Why does the accuser feel obliged to accuse in order to justify himself? Because he feels guilty toward his victim. Because he feels that his attitude and his behavior are essentially unjust and fraudulentÃ¢â¬ ¦. Proof? In almost every case, the punishment has already been inflicted. The victim of racism is already living under the weight of disgrace and oppressionÃ¢â¬ ¦. In order to justify such punishment and misfortune, a process of rationlization is set in motion, by which to explain the ghetto and colonial exploitation. Ã¢â¬Å" Central to stigmatic labeling is the attribution of an inherent fault: It is as if one says, Ã¢â¬Å"There must be something wrong with these people. Otherwise, why would we treat them so badly? Ã¢â¬ Erving Goffman Perhaps the most important contributor to labeling theory was Erving Goffman, President of the American Sociological Association, and one of America's most cited sociologists. His most popular books include The Presentation of Self in Everyday Life, Interaction Ritual,  and Frame Analysis.  His most important contribution to labeling theory, however, was Stigma: Notes on the Management of Spoiled Identity published in 1963.  Unlike other authors who examined the process of adopting a deviant identity, Goffman explored the ways people managed that identity and controlled information about it.
Saturday, January 11, 2020
IntroductionThe understanding of the challenges facing immigrant health in the United States is vital to maximizing its trajectory towards transformation. As pointed out by Hall and Cuellar (2016), the negative impetus among the immigrant healthcare in the United States is greatly linked to the relationship between the immigration policies and immigration experiences. Even though the government has passed various legislations with an aim of providing affordable health care to its citizens, the socio-political environment, and its effects healthcare service provision remains a troubling affair. This study seeks to examine some of the pieces of evidence that lead to the limited access to quality health care in the United States of America, more so the immigrants. Some of the possible barriers include unfriendly immigration policies, bureaucracies in the health care system, and lack of capital to finance medical bills. Therefore, this study is significant in addressing the government and other stakeholders to come up with friendly measures that give immigrants easy access to health care services.Statement of the Study ProblemImmigrants in the United States are faced with substantial challenges in accessing healthcare, and this has a great toll on their general wellbeing. These challenges can be attributed to the healthcare system. For example, the insurance coverage varies from one state to another, which leads to an intricate insurance scheme in the country. As a result, the government faces a greater challenge to influence uniform reforms at the national level. Even in spite of the Congress passing the patient and Affordable Care Act (ACA) in 2010, the immigrant communities in the country are still not able to access good healthcare services. This implies that the political goodwill is necessary to promote the immigrants' rights in health care access. The country should implement sound and sustainable immigration policies access essential services in the country.Immigrant Health and Its ChallengesIt is obvious that the negative trajectory to healthcare accessibility by immigrant communities is propelled by the existing harsh policies. For instance, the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act of 1996 (PRWORA) impedes many local, state, and federal health workers from supporting the undocumented immigrants (Hall ; Cuellar, 2016). Even though was sought as a tool to limit illegal immigration, such restrictions limit the immigrants to access publicly financed health services, and instead of serving the purpose of limiting illegal immigrants, (PRWORA) places deleterious effects on the immigrants' access to publicly funded health care service. Another matter of concern is how the implementation of ACA is possible when Immigration and Nationality Act (INA) conditions the immigrants to meet certain qualifications in order to access any form of federal assistance. Even if they have a chance to Medicaid benefits, their time to access such is restricted. According to Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act in 1996, federal benefits are only allowed for five years for the qualified immigrants and refugees. According to the National Association of Social Workers (NASW), the policies governing the health care place open restrictions to the immigrant communities. The organization, therefore, maintains that social workers and healthcare service providers should be on the lookout to consider these social and legal statutes to deal with the barriers that limit the community wellbeing in the country. Besides these limiting policies, the immigrant communities are also faced with discrimination and prejudice whenever they visit any health facility. In fact, the problem of racism still remains a disturbing matter in the United States. As a result, some health professionals have been reluctant to attend to patients from other ethnic communities. Also, most of the immigrant families have low income, which affects their ability to pay the hospital bills. Therefore, they face a serious problem when it comes to health care access. What Has Been DoneVarious individuals and organization have made incredible endeavors to address the immigrant health challenges in the United States. For instance, the National Association of Social Workers (NASW) has been active in calling their members and partners to deal with the policies that affect the immigrant communities (Haidar, 2018). On the same pedestal, the former president Barack Obama in 2014 made public his intention to allow the undocumented immigrants to live in the country without the constant threats of deportation. He similarly sought to allow them unrestricted access legal employment in different companies and organizations. Unfortunately, the Republicans in the Senate used their numerical strength to thwart the plan, and were later put on hold by one of the federal district judges in Texas. The argument was that when would be allowed in the country, the plan would place a strain on the health care system.In addition, lack of insurance coverage, poor political goodwill, lack of knowledge about health, screening, and prevention makes it difficult to influence changes in the health care to favor immigrants. This creates the likelihood of poor access to chronic infection management for the families that do not have health insurance coverage. According to the study done by Gushulak, Weekers and MacPherson (2009), positive health care outcome and health care-seeking behavior are greatly associated with the healthcare insurance. It is important to note that the government has tried to implement the Affordable Care Act, but still, the immigration policies need to be dealt with to attain the best results. The government and the policymakers must come up with better approaches that guarantee affordable health care for all people indiscriminately. Even though experts allude that the U.S. immigration integration policies are the best compared to other countries and is slightly favorable in regards to health policies, more efforts are needed to make this thought a conceivable reality. Since the election of Donald Trump as the president of the United States, various organizations concerned with the protection of the immigrants and refugees' rights have issued statements to fight the unfriendly policies. They seek to revoke the Deferred Action for Childhood Arrivals (DACA) and to pave ways for the immigrants' easy access to essential public services (Hall ; Cuellar, 2016). The government has also developed certain measures sought to defend the rights of the foreign-born individuals in the country. One of them is the Culturally and Linguistically Appropriate Services (CLAS), which is used as a blueprint guide in giving health care service to different populations. This means that immigrants and refugees in the country also commit the government to ensuring proper access to health care service. However, more needs to be done to allow immigrants easy access to health care services. Potential ChallengesThere is an effort to make reforms in the health care service so that all people in the United States can access them. However, it is evident that there are still potential challenges to deal with, such as poor political goodwill to fast-track such (Kullgren, 2003). When President Obama tried to come up with plans to support the immigrant communities, the plan was thwarted not on the basis of the arguments that were presented, but due to political stands. The members of the Republican Party used their number to defeat the plan in the Congress. However, experts say that the barriers to health service for immigrant communities are vaster and go beyond the policies. They range from financial incapacities, fear of deportation and discrimination among the health care service providers. For example, within the health care system are external resource constraints, discrimination, the costs of the health care services and many procedures within the system that one has to keep up with. In fact, the bureaucratic procedures within the health care system is not only disadvantageous to immigrants, but to other citizens as well. On the other hand, there are individual challenges that impede health care access. These may include communication barriers, fear of deportation, stigma, financial incapacities and lack of knowledge about health care services. At the policy level, immigrants meet difficulties in trying to access health care insurance. The requirement that individuals have to provide their documents to access such insurances is a greater challenge, more so to the undocumented immigrants. Therefore, despite the efforts, the challenges are seriously raging.RecommendationsThe recommendations to address these challenges range from advocacy for policy transformation, more training for the health care providers to better understand their professional roles, more and better insurance options, and extension of the security net. In other words, the government should increase access to all citizens irrespective of their background and status. Also, the government should allow access to state-funded health care or provide subsidized insurance opportunities to all people living in the united states. Essentially, there is a need for all the stakeholders involved in the matter to take these points with greater interests to guarantee access to affordable health care between both the documented and undocumented immigrants. If allowed to continue on the same pedestal, the United States would end up being a bad example that would be used as a case study for poor immigration health policies. ConclusionThis study identifies some of the barriers to health care access by the immigrant communities. Some of the identified areas to be addressed include immigrant policies, the bureaucracies within the health care system as well as the expansion of health insurance options. The United States is celebrated in the world for having friendly blueprints that guide its health care policies. However, it is also apparent that those policies are not friendly to immigrants living in the country. Even though various stakeholders have tried to generate mitigating measures, there is still need to promote political goodwill for those options to succeed. In spite of the Congress passing the patient and Affordable Care Act (ACA) into law in 2010, the immigrant communities in the country are still not able to access good health care services due to poor political goodwill. It means that the government and policymakers must hasten their moves in coming up with proper measures to support immigrant health. Just as pointed out in this study, understanding the challenges that face immigrant health in the United States is vital to maximizing its path towards transformation.
Friday, January 3, 2020
Imagine if your life was as perfect as it could get; pursuing your wildest dreams, no financial problems, loving friends and families who supports you, not worrying about the limitation of your bodyÃ¢â¬ ¦ but one day, were told that you have an incurable illness or an injury that will leave you permanently paralyzed. Luckily amazing new scientific discoveries could change that. Today we are on the brink of a new age in medicine, all because of the cells inside us. ItÃ¢â¬â¢s called stem cell research and it could be the first step in medical revolution where weÃ¢â¬â¢ll be able to heal our bodies of any illness. Unfortunately, due to the controversies surrounding stem cell research, the government is unwilling to help and remain neutral with sides. Scientists first discovered stem cells in the early 1980s while experimenting with embryonic stem cells from mice. This later triggered the studies for human embryonic stem cells in the late 1990s. Stem cell could be defined as, a clonal, self-renewing entity that is multipotent and thus can generate several differentiated cell types.Ã¢â¬ In other words, stem cells are able to grow into just about any cell in the body. Stem cells regularly repair worn out organs; for instance our taste buds has to be replaced every 10 days, skin cells are replaced after every couple of weeks, and liver cells turn over every 300 to 500 days. Stem cells carry out specific function and thus those that remain in the human body after birth serves as a sort of internalShow MoreRelatedThe Issue Of Stem Cell Research858 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesCatholics are absolutely against embryonic stem cell research. News is already talking about how the Catholics approve for stem cell research but inside of an interv iew with Catholic News Service Nancy OÃ¢â¬â¢Brien wrote: Ã¢â¬Å"Declaring that the stem-cell research does not present a conflict between science and religion, the U.S bishops overwhelmingly approved a statement June 13th calling the use of human embryos in such research Ã¢â¬Å"gravely immoralÃ¢â¬ and unnecessaryÃ¢â¬ (OÃ¢â¬â¢Brien Ã¢â¬Å"Catholic News ServiceÃ¢â¬ ). As youRead MoreIs The Issue Of Stem Cell Research? Essay2140 Words Ã |Ã 9 PagesOur Turn To Be Healed? Stem cell research has become an important part of medical research in the past few years. Embryonic stem cell research is controversial because of the blurred lines in the moral viewpoints of many people. These embryonic stem cells are pure and are easily manipulated to fit any type of cell needed. This is useful in the testing of new drugs and treatments of permanent or incurable diseases such as ALS and MS. Adult stem cells are also useful in research, but they are alreadyRead MoreThe Issue Of Stem Cell Research1675 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pageswas science fiction has become today s science reality. In this age, one can replicate many types of specific cells, such as blood, brain, tissue or muscle cells from a single stem cell. These stem cells, in theory can be used to heal or replace damage cells in our bodies thus curing us of certain diseases. These stem cells are the basic cells to develop any type of organism and its research is not allowed without incredible controversy. As one mi ght imagine, such potential power has been seen as unethicalRead MoreThe Issue Of Stem Cell Research1240 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pageswith the proper research into stem cells to treat injury or disease. However, the procedures followed for the research of stem cells have stirred up a hefty amount of controversy in the past and the present. Stem Cell research has been argued to be an ethical choice due to its possibilities for simplified treatments in the future, yet it is controversial due to the destruction of embryos, and the undecided moral status of the embryo, which is why scientists should do their research with non-embryonicRead MoreThe Issue Of Legalizing Stem Cell Research2200 Words Ã |Ã 9 PagesLegalizing Stem Cell Research Being one of the most exciting and promising fields of medical research, embryonic stem cell research has progressed over the years going more in depth to discover the key to unlock the cure to many diseases. These unique individuals have the ability to copy themselves an unlimited amount of times and can grow into any cell type in the body. Scientists are seeing infinite value in these cells. They are able to further their research on the understanding of human developmentRead MoreThe Issues Surrounding Stem Cell Research1262 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesÃ¢â¬Å"At its core, this issue forces us to confront fundamental questions about the beginnings of life and the ends of science. It [stem cell research] lies at a difficult moral intersection, juxtaposing the need to protect life in all its phases with the prospect of saving and improving life in all its stages.Ã¢â¬ George W. Bush in his address at the Bush Ranch in Texas precisely captures the essence of the issues surrounding stem c ells. Ã¢â¬Å"Stem cells are undifferentiated cells that have the capabilityRead MoreThe Issue Of Embryonic Stem Cell Research1391 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesaccomplish. In order to do this, many believe that embryonic stem cell research could be the key to unlocking a variety of medical problems. However, in the early 2000Ã¢â¬â¢s, the United States saw a significant decrease in federal funding available for this research. This could set back the medical advances by years if researchers could not continue their work. A decrease in restrictions while increasing federal funding for embryonic stem cell research is vital for taking steps forward in ethically findingRead MoreLegal Issues Regarding Stem Cell Research1666 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesStem Cell Research Legislation and Legal Issues: A stem cell can be described as the primary building block of the human body and have become important because of its ability to develop into a different cell type. Due to this ability to develop into different cell types, scientists have continued to build up ways to use stem cells to renew or repair damaged tissues or organs. As a result of such efforts, its expected that stem cell research can contribute to the discovery of new therapies forRead MoreEthical Issues Surrounding Stem Cell Research4683 Words Ã |Ã 19 PagesIntroduction Stem cell research, one of the most exciting and controversial ethical issues in medicine today, continuously makes headlines with new developments. This topic concerns medical professionals, scientists, ethics forums, and even politicians, but many people do not know what to conclude from the controversy surrounding it. Dr. Elizabeth Crouch1, a genetics professor of the Biomedical Science Department of Texas A M University, argues that it is vital that students entering medicineRead MoreEthical Issues Brought Forth by Stem Cell Research1016 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagespotential cure for cancer? Stem cells are the future, but it may come with a heavy price. The potential benefits of stem cells are unbelievable. Stem cells could save many lives. Imagine not having to worry about organ transplants or having diabetes. But stem cells bring many issues with them too. Is killing embryos ever ok? Should cloning be allowed in stem cell research? This is a very complex topic that changes directio ns every day. Stem cells are unspecialized cells that have the ability to renew