Saturday, August 31, 2019

Professional Goal Statement

There are many who feel that education ends upon completion of college. I feel differently, however, and understand that there is so much that can be learned in further studies such as graduate school. In line with my decision to pursue my studies in graduate school, I understand that there are more opportunities for those who receive the extra training necessary to be ahead in today’s competitive world. I feel that in order for me to gain an advantage in the field of Organizational Psychology, I need to devote more time and energy in learning more about the recent developments in this field. This will enable to pursue my career as either an experienced business managers or as a human resource professional. †¢ Academic Experience Having completed my degree at the Pennsylvania State University and having specialized in Psychological & Social Sciences, I am confident that I am fully equipped for the minimum requirements of this course. The various courses and training programs that I enrolled in during my tenure in college such as values and ethics in health and human development professions, legal and ethical issues in human services, social psychology, applied social psychology, advanced cognitive psychology, abnormal psychology, child behavior disorders, learning and instruction and elementary statistics in psychology have all given me the insight that I need to keep up with the course requirements for this program. Work /Other Experience I am currently employed as a Social Service Counselor at the Office of Youth and development at the Swanson Youth Center in Monroe, LA. As such, I handle the decision making process of the treatment team including formulating therapeutic activities and recommending a treatment plan as well as managing a caseload by scheduling appointments, evaluating client progress in counseling sessions and making recommendations to the treatment team. I believe that this work experience is vital to my training and the pursuit of my career because it will help to prepare me for what comes ahead. It is said that not every lesson can be learned in the confines of the classroom and that most of what is learned comes from experience. As my resume shows, I have ample work experience that I am confident will be invaluable to my development in the future. †¢ Personal Qualities I get things done. The job gets done faster and more efficiently as and when the objectives are clear, the strategies acceptable, and the resources are available. Of course, in the real world, these do not always happen. To the extent that they happen and to the extent that I can make them happen, I go after them and manage to get the job done. This work ethic which I have developed over time will prove to be very helpful once I am dealing with the requirements of this course. †¢ Why Walden? One of the most difficult choices is always that of choosing a good school for the reason that there are many different factors to consider. There are many things that need to be examined yet when it came to deciding why I would select Walden there was no such difficulty. Given the global reputation that Walden enjoys as being one of the leading academic institutions in the country, it would serve me well to be able to gain the knowledge that this fine school can impart upon me. The fact that the school also offers an online program is another great advantage because it will allow me to study and work at the same time.

Friday, August 30, 2019

How does U.A.Fanthorpe create different personalities within the poems ‘Not My Best side’ and ‘Old Man, Old Man’? Essay

‘Not My Best Side’ and ‘Old Man, Old Man’, both by U.A.Fanthorpe, create different personalities and changes within these throughout the poems. Fanthorpe uses humour, different styles of language, imagery and stereotypes to put her point across. ‘Not My Best Side’ is based on Uccello’s painting from the Renaissance period, of St. George and the Dragon. Fanthorpe has in many ways reversed the personalities portrayed in the picture, and used modern stereotypes to show how hard it is to break out of stereotypes created by society. ‘Old Man, Old Man’ focuses more on change. It uses the stereotypes of an old man and a successful businessman. A narrator, who can be taken to be the old man’s daughter, tells the poem ‘Old Man, Old Man’. The poem uses imagery and different poetic techniques to strengthen the imagery and personalities. One of the main techniques used in both poems is enjambment. In ‘Not My Best Side’ it involves the reader and encourages them to guess what is about to happen. Alternatively, in ‘Old Man, Old Man’ it creates an element of confusion, giving the reader an in-sight into the old man’s feelings. ‘Now you ramble / In your talk around London districts, fretting / At how to find your way from Holborn to Soho.’ This highlights the confusion an old man is feeling as he begins to forget things that were once well known, and realises he is not as independent as he once was. The ‘insignificant’ memory lapse with use of enjambment persuades the reader to stop and feel empathy for the old man, similarly enjambment emphasises the word ‘fretting’. Enjambment also creates suspense in ‘Not My Best Side’, in the dragon’s case. ‘I don’t mind dying / Ritually, since I will always rise again,’ In ‘Old Man, Old Man’ Fanthorpe uses the change of pronoun to show the proximity between the old man and the narrator. Fanthorpe talks in the first half of the poem about the old man when he was younger. It is much less personal than in the second half, when he is an old man and their relationship has become much closer. ‘He was always/ A man who did-it-himself.’ We can tell this is less personal because Fanthorpe has used the pronoun ‘he’ whereas later in the poem, as the relationship is possibly closer, the narrator is talking directly to the old man and so uses ‘you’. ‘He’ is used to distinguish between past and present. It shows how the father – daughter relationship has become closer in the man’s old age because he actually needs his daughter. Fanthorpe proceeds to change the pronoun ‘he’ to ‘you’. This shows how the old man has altered, as well as reflecting the change in the relationship with his daughter. ‘He’, being less personal, also hints at how the daughter thinks of her father as a young man and her father now he is old as two completely different people when in reality they are the same. In ‘Not My Best Side’ if the change in the father’s personality was less important I expect Fanthorpe would have used ‘you wer e’. ‘When I left you tried not to cry’ Here the use of ‘you’ shows up the new, personal relationship between father and daughter. The daughter is talking directly to her father about who he has become. In the present, where ‘you’ is used, the father has become weaker and, even though he dislikes admitting it, needs his daughter’s help. Fanthorpe also uses the descriptions of objects in ‘Old Man, Old Man’ to hint at this new ‘weakness’. ‘recalcitrant / Things in bottles,’ describes not only disorderly things in bottles, but could also address the possible disobedience of his daughters, the memory loss and ageing which he cannot control either. In ‘Old Man, Old Man’ Fanthorpe used a variety of colloquial and poetic language. The poetic language is mainly towards the end of the poem and involves the reader as he tries to comprehend it, as well as show the old man’s confusion as he comes to terms with his amnesia. ‘So obdurate in your contracted world’ shows how the old man is still stubborn, selfish and too proud to be truly thankful for his daughter’s assistance. The more difficult poetic language conveys confusion, through the reader’s feelings towards the language, as well as the physical change in the old man. ‘I am only a cloud’ suggests he is going blind, so that his daughter is a cloud in his vision. The form of the poems varies totally. Both are free verse, therefore having no specific metre. ‘Not My Best Side’ particularly relies on the layout because of its significant three stanzas. There is no other way that this poem could be laid out without confusing the character’s points of view, or making the meaning of the poem unclear. If the stanzas were all ‘stuck’ together in one long verse, the characters still would not stand out and the appearance of the poem may be less appealing, looking more like a long mass of words. Humour is used in ‘Not My Best Side’ to make the poem more enjoyable while having a serious underlying point. The humour is successful because, although the poem is based on a medieval story, the language is very modern and gives the verses a comical twist. Fanthorpe refers to modern day issues, like acne, to give the poem humour, ‘I mean, / What was he like underneath all the hardware? / He might have acne, black heads or even / Bad breath for all I could tell,’ I find the tone of this statement humorous because looks are a definite issue today, and a medieval maiden thinking like that – is it normal?! The fact that looks, acne and bad breath are such big issues today, helps present the point that it is very difficult to break out of the stereotypes set by society, as well as making the characters seem real to the reader. These modern stereotypes allow the characters to break out of the stereotypes set by the painting and so, I think, Fanthorpe is trying to say that we should get to know the real person and not be judgmental and discriminatory. In the picture of St. George and the dragon there are three stereotypes – the evil dragon, the helpless maiden and the knight in shining armour. Fanthorpe has changed those in the picture to a new and modern, but equally stereotypical set. However the characters remain in the same situation: the maiden is still the captive, the dragon is still the captor and the knight is saving the maiden. Therefore Fanthorpe has merely changed their personalities, not the situation. ‘Why should my victim be so / unattractive as to be inedible,’ Shows how today the maiden is no longer considered beautiful, thus showing the change of perceptions, especially of the dragon. While changing the stereotypes set by the myth, the poem challenges them at the same time. In the poem the knight is vain and ladish, ‘You can’t / Do better than me at the moment’ and is not the ‘knight in shining armour’ as represented in the picture. The dragon comes across very differently in the poem, he appears to be shy and self-conscious shown in the first line by ‘Not my best side, I’m afraid’. The dragon is more of a victim than the maiden, being victimised by the knight (having killed him) and the artist (having cut off two of his legs!). However he seems to sympathise with the artist as he refers to him as ‘Poor chap’ perhaps because he also sees the artist as a victim due to his inability in painting. The dragon is actually a kind character and can not sympathise with the ostentatious people in society namely the knight, ‘Why, I asked myself, should my conqueror / Be so ostentatiously beardless,’ I think the dragon is also jealous of the knight and would rather be popular without having to fulfil history. The dragon knows his destiny, death, and knows there is no escape, however it is made clear that he would rather die after a fight and by a more dangerous looking knight. The maiden is also definitely not a victim, ‘It’s hard for a girl to be sure if / She wants to be rescued.’ She is very forward and knows her own mind and we can see that she didn’t really want to be rescued. She states how she ‘didn’t much fancy him’ (the knight) and preferred to know what equipment she was getting at a glance. Through this Fanthorpe is contrasting modern society and the traditional mythical roles. However, even though the maiden is against being rescued, Fanthorpe shows how, even though women are more dominant and opinionated than in the past, there is a certain conclusion: women still go back to the safety of a husband, ‘And a girl’s got to think of her future.’ This shows how, to some degree, women are still confined to their roles set by society. In comparison ‘Old Man, Old Man’ uses stereotyping much less. It confronts two common stereotypes in men – the powerful businessman, who does little for his family, and a forgetful old man, who is longing for the ‘good old days’ but is too stubborn to ask for the help and love he wants from his daughter who loves his helplessness. ‘I love / Your helplessness you who hate being helpless.’ Shows how the old man finds it extremely difficult to come to terms with the changes he has gone through. He wishes he were still as independent as he once was and dislikes his dependence on his daughter. However he still appears to be stubborn and proud as suggested in the final stanza by ‘Let me find your hammer. Let me / Walk with you o Drury Lane.’ It demonstrates how the daughter has to ask to be allowed to do anything to help him with ‘let’ showing the pleading in order to be allowed to do so. The stereotypical businessman contrasts with the allusion to his organisation, which is perhaps lost by age, ‘†¦as you forget / If you’ve smoked your timetabled cigarette?’ The old man was once well organised (also shown by the labelling of bottles) but has become frail and forgetful not even remembering the simple things which once ‘ruled’ his life. This transformation from businessman to old man explains the alterations in the man due to ageing. The relationship between the two characters in ‘Old Man, Old Man’, the man (old and young) and the narrator, who we can assume to be his daughter as she knows his past with disinherited children and failures with daughters unusually well, develops during the poem. Fanthorpe shows his incompetence produced by old age in the second half of the poem. ‘Let me find your hammer.’ sums up the relationship at the end of the poem between the father and daughter especially showing the old man’s helplessness – he can not even find his own hammer. At the start of the poem the old man, in his youth, is made out to have a bad relationship with his daughters, ‘not good with daughters’ and to be very caught up in his business. I have a feeling that the daughter may have been one of his disinherited children or not far off from being so. I think she was very frightened of him when he was younger and is still desperate to be accepted and/or forgiven by her father, which is why the word ‘let’ is repeated. Many of the characters in the two poems are similar. Comparisons can be made between the old man and the maiden and the knight due to situation and character (respectively). The knight and the old man in his youth relate to each other due to many similarities in character. I think it is hinted that the old man in his youth was self-centred, arrogant and powerful. The old man being described as ‘Lord’ shows us his power and control. ‘Lord once of shed, garage and garden,’ ‘Lord’ suggests that he was in control and looked up to by his employees, etc. which is similar to the knight’s character and situation. The knight is also respected by most people because of his profession and self-confidence (he does not care what other people think and in more ways than one). However with him boasting of his diplomas, etc. and wishes of becoming a hero, one could say that he is a typical lad, ‘So why be difficult? / Don’t you want to be killed and/or rescued / in the most contemporary way? He thinks that people can not do better than he can at the moment therefore he gets to make decisions for other people which of course are favoured by him. Fanthorpe also uses his character to relate to the issue of sexism. He assumes that all women should stick to the roles set by mythology and tradition, and obviously doesn’t look upon those who ‘break out of line’ kindly (Sara Cox being a modern day ladette). The old man is also similar to the maiden because of their mutual dislike of being helped. They are both intensely headstrong characters and only consented to the aid offered under serious circumstances. The old man grudgingly allows his daughter to help him because he is old and helpless. Likewise the maiden only allows the knight to rescue her once ‘The dragon got himself beaten by the boy’ and when she realised that ‘a girl’s got to think of her future.’ In the end both are forced to give in to their designated social roles and stereotypes. From closer examination we can see that the relationship of characters within the poems actually compare between the poems. In both poems we can see that one of the characters is competing against something in the poem and one comes out the victor. In ‘Not My Best Side’ the knight is competing against the dragon to see who will die, and in ‘Old Man, Old Man’ the daughter is competing with her father’s business for love and attention. In the end we see that the knight has won because he has killed the dragon and saved the maiden; in ‘Old Man, Old Man’ the daughter wins but by patience. As her father grows old, he needs his daughter’s help and can no longer run his own life, let alone a business, efficiently. The daughter has waited her whole life to be able to do something for her father and it is only in his old age she is allowed to do so. Within both poems there are many contrasts and comparisons between characters. I think Fanthorpe has managed to create the different characters extremely well through many different methods. She has incorporated poetic techniques to make characters and their feelings stand out, and language to show how personalities have developed. Humour is used to make ‘Not My Best Side’ enjoyable whilst putting across a serious point of view, and imagery to bring ‘Old Man, Old Man’ to life. As well as the different stereotypes employed, Fanthorpe has used the relationships between characters to create many strongly formed personalities within the poems. I think my favourite poem out of the two is ‘Not My Best Side’, purely because of the humour and the light-hearted way of conveying a serious point. I also feel I can identify better with it because it covers many common, modern day issues, which have affected me more than the effects of old age. I feel that Fanthorpe, in both poems, has made a lasting impression on the reader. The humour of ‘Not My Best Side, has certainly moved me, and I admire the ingenuity of taking a picture and changing the personalities of the characters. Fanthorpe adds depth to ‘Old Man, Old Man’ by subtly suggesting the old man’s confusion on a level below the everyday situations. In this way the poem conveys the difficult changes of ageing in a touching manner.

Thursday, August 29, 2019

In what ways, and how effectively Essay

â€Å"Hamlet† contains particular elements which categorise it as a revenge tragedy, a popular genre in late 1500’s and early 1600’s. Revenge tragedies often comprise of certain characters who are appointed to pursue vengeance against a particular person. In addition, there is frequently a central plot, for example Hamlet’s revenge on Claudius for his father’s death, and minor sub plots; Laertes’ revenge on Hamlet and Fortinbras’ attempt to regain the lands his father lost. Revenge tragedies often incorporate similar plot lines, which are usually relatively simple, and they regularly contain similar features, such as a ghost, a hesitating revenger, a villain and concepts of madness, all of which are featured in â€Å"Hamlet. † Although the play is much more complex than a stereotypical revenge tragedy, one of the central themes is revenge, and Shakespeare portrays this through three entirely different characters. The main plot focuses on Hamlet, however there are intricate links to Laertes and Fortinbras. Shakespeare effectively presents the three revenge characters as possessing parallel lives, especially Fortinbras and Hamlet. In using 5 Acts, Shakespeare does more than present the popular genre of revenge tragedy and through the structure of these he effectively uses sub plots, as well as the main plot, in which Hamlet is instructed to take revenge on Claudius. The sub plots, including Laertes’ revenge on Hamlet and Fortinbras’ revenge, are particularly effective because they allow contrasts between the main revenge characters, and allow the audience to observe each character in a different perspective. In this way Hamlet’s attitude towards revenge contrasts with that of Laertes’, the typical avenger, and Fortinbras’ life appears to almost parallel Hamlet’s. Shakespeare effectively brings the main and sub-plots to a close dramatic conclusion. Various scenes, such as the gravediggers scene, have a dual purpose in that whilst they provide an integral concentration on death, they also act as â€Å"comic relief† scenes, and inject some humour into the play. Shakespeare presents Hamlet as the central character and the main focus in the theme of revenge. The audience initially meets Hamlet in Act 1 ii, where the court is assembled, and there are signs of conflict between Hamlet and the newly appointed King, Claudius. The audience is given the plot basis, which in turn the play develops from. Hamlet’s disgust for the King and Queen is specifically addressed in his first soliloquy, where he shares with the audience his anguish and resentment for them. He attempts to come to terms with his Father’s death and his Mother’s hasty marriage to Claudius, â€Å"But two months dead, nay, not so much, not two! † (Act 1 ii) Due to his mother’s swift marriage, Hamlet’s opinions of womenhood are shattered, â€Å"Frailty, thy name is woman. † Shakespeare effectively develops this initial resentment, which Hamlet feels towards both the King and Queen due to their â€Å"o’erhasty marriage† (Act 2 ii), and it intensifies when Hamlet is informed by the Ghost of the true nature of his father’s death. In this first soliloquy, his speech is evocative, especially where he conveys strong emotions in the metaphor comparing the current world to â€Å"an unweeded garden,† (Act 1 ii) with â€Å"things rank and gross in nature. † Shakespeare effectively presents Hamlet as a considerable intellect, shown by his reference to Greek mythological figures. He emphatically uses juxtaposition, where Hamlet makes a strong comparison between his father and Claudius, â€Å"Hyperion to a satyr. † Act 1 ii, implying his father was like a sun god whereas Claudius was a mere half goat half man creature. The strong comparison reveals his bitterness towards Claudius. It can be argued that the ghost is created by Shakespeare as a powerful, metaphorical force and as such acts as the initial figure to provoke Hamlet to pursue an active revenge against Claudius. Hamlet’s first response to the ghost’s claim is rather hasty, † May sweep to my revenge. † Act 1 v. This appears to echo Laertes’ impetuous attitude towards revenge, however, Hamlet does not fit this role, and he remains a thinking revenger. The ghost states â€Å"Ay, that incestuous†¦ and prey on garbage,† (Act 1 v) suggesting that Claudius had seduced Gertrude before her husband’s death, although there is no evidence in the rest of play to support this judgement. As a result, Hamlet experiences greater resentment towards both Gertrude, but more specifically Claudius. Hamlet is instructed by the ghost to avenge his father’s death, â€Å"If thou hast nature in thee, bear it not†¦ damned incest. † (Act 1 v) however, he tells Hamlet to leave Gertrude to God’s judgement, â€Å"Leave her to heaven†¦ prick and sting her. † Act 1 v. Shakespeare effectively uses a metaphor to present Gertrude’s conscience. The ghost’s last words to Hamlet are â€Å"Remember me† (Act 1 v) which sounds like a command, but is actually an unequivocal instruction, in which Hamlet must not forget to avenge his father. Shakespeare utilises the Ghost’s speech to relate the terrors of purgatory, ending with the effective simile, â€Å"Like quills upon the fretful porpetine. † Act 1 v. The ghost continues this passionate language to arouse intense feelings and incite Hamlet to commit murder as the ultimate revenge, â€Å"Ay, that incestuous, that adulterate beast. † (Act 1 v). Similarly the ghost’s narrative uses particularly graphic and evocative language to enhance strong emotions, â€Å"That swift as quicksilver is courses through / The natural gates and alleys of the body. † Act 1 v. Shakespeare effectively presents Hamlet as a thinking revenger and not a warrior, a major contrast to Laertes’ character. Hamlet’s second soliloquy particularly focuses on his delay for avenging his Father’s death, when he begins with â€Å"O, what a rogue and peasant slave am I! † Act 2 ii. Hamlet expresses his disgust for himself for delaying his revenge, and the language of the speech is passionate, because he is punishing himself. During the soliloquy, he constantly criticises himself, â€Å"A dull and muddy-mettled rascal†¦ not for a King. † Act 2 ii. Hamlet expresses himself as dull spirited and unable to act, because he is â€Å"pigeon-livered and lack gall. † Act 2 ii, suggesting that he does not contain the capacity for revenge, and doesn’t have the courage to accomplish the deed. Shakespeare effectively presents Hamlet’s inner frustration, in his language by using a series of adjectives, â€Å"Remorseless, treacherous, lecherous, kindless villain! / O, Vengeance! † Act 2 ii, which reveals his real hatred for Claudius. Hamlet questions the ghost’s honesty for the first time, â€Å"The spirit that I have seen / May be the devil, and the devil hath power. † Act 2 ii. Therefore, Hamlet decides to â€Å"catch the conscience of the King,† (Act 2 ii) by staging a re-enactment of the crime and this portrays Hamlet’s thinking and philosophical approach to revenge, which he wants to be perfect. The prayer scene also reveals his philosophical temperament as Hamlet, the â€Å"sole son,† realises he is the only person appointed to take revenge for his father’s death. Shakespeare provides Hamlet with a perfect opportunity in which he has the chance to kill the King. However, Hamlet feels it is morally wrong to kill Claudius at prayer, not because it is a sacrilegious act, but because it would allow Claudius to go to heaven, which Hamlet obviously objects to. â€Å"Now might I do it pat, now ‘a is a-praying. And now I’ll do’t, And so ‘a goes to heaven. † Act 3 iii. It could also be argued that this suggests that he is not a cold – blooded killer. Hamlet also feels he would be letting his father down, â€Å"Why, this is hire and salary, not revenge,† and so consequently, Hamlet spares his Uncle’s life. Hamlet’s language during this speech appears particularly passionate. Shakespeare further portrays Hamlet as a major contrast to Laertes, in that Hamlet believes the King must be engaged in a sinful act before he can take revenge, â€Å"When he is drunk asleep, or in his rage / Or in th’incestuous pleasure of his bed. † Act 3 iii. However, Laertes is presented as a rash revenge hero and states that he would â€Å"cut his throat i’th’church! † Act 4 vii. Ironically, Hamlet’s soliloquy appears irrelevant, because Claudius’ repentence is not sincere, as his last couplet in the scene suggests, â€Å"My words fly up, my thoughts remain blow. / Words without thoughts never to heaven go. † Act 3 iii. The audience witnesses the king’s first, and only, confession during his soliloquy, in which he cannot pray due to his ill conscience and guilt, â€Å"A brothers murder. Pray can I not. † Act 3 iii. Consequently, it could be argued that Shakespeare wanted to give the audience a psychological insight into Claudius’ character and to feel some sympathy towards him, especially in the opening line, â€Å"O, my offence is rank. It smells to heaven. † (Act 3 iii) In a sense, Shakespeare could be presenting Claudius in this manner to allow the audience to see him from a different perspective, instead of the traditional revenge villain. Claudius reveals why he killed the previous king Hamlet, â€Å"My crown, mine own ambition, and my Queen,† (Act 3 iii) and, he does ask for forgiveness, â€Å"Forgive me my foul murder? † Act 3 iii. Yet it is significant that he cannot fully repent because he is not willing to consider giving up the crown. Therefore, Shakespeare continues to present Claudius as the main villain in the play, one who is driven by cowardly and evil ambitions, but the audience is given a psychological insight, in which they gain a new understanding of his character. Shakespeare appears to present Hamlet from an alternative viewpoint, during the fencing match in the concluding scene. Hamlet’s revenge for Claudius is intensified, when his mother too is killed. She drinks to the success of her son, despite Claudius’ rebuke of â€Å"Gertrude, do not drink. † (Act 5 ii) The audience anticipates his strong objection to the Queen drinking, yet Shakespeare effectively presents Claudius’ cowardice and, arguably doubtful feelings for her, in this simple reproach. It is clear that Claudius cannot contemplate abandoning the plot, in order to save the Queen. After the trauma of his mother’s death, Hamlet acts with spontaneity when Laertes tells him who is responsible for the poisoned drink, â€Å"The King, the King’s to blame,† (Act 5 ii) and he wounds the King with the â€Å"envenomed† sword. Hamlet’s impulsive act echoes the murder of Polonius. He forces Claudius to drink the poison, â€Å"the King dies. † and in dying without contrition or forgiveness, Hamlet experiences some satisfaction in that his revenge will result in Claudius being sent to hell. However, Hamlet has experienced four acts of dilemma and deliberation and, in a sense, he was forced to take revenge due to Claudius’ callous actions and had a prime opportunity to do so. Shakespeare presents Laertes as a rash revenge hero, an effective contrast to Hamlet, and his revenge develops as a sub plot. Laertes returns home from Paris and demands to know how his father died, â€Å"How came he dead? † Act 4 v. Laertes appears to the audience as the more traditional revenger when compared to Hamlet, and he seems extremely determined, â€Å"My will, not all the world’s. † Act 4 v, implying that nothing in the world will stop him, until his desire for revenge is satisfied. The contrasting character of Laertes reveals the complex and indecisive manner in which Hamlet carries out revenge. Laertes’ revenge is intensified when he sees Ophelia’s madness, and he specifically compares Ophelia’s situation to that of their father’s, â€Å"a young maid’s wits† and â€Å"an old man’s life. † Act 4 v. Laertes, addressing Polonius’ funeral, describes it as â€Å"obscure† because there was â€Å"no trophy, sword, nor hatchment o’er his bones. † Act 4 v. In this sense Laertes experiences a greater resentment for his father’s death, in that he has not been honoured with an elaborate funeral. However, the relative secrecy of Polonius’ death is probably deliberate to avoid betraying the corruption of the court, an aspect Laertes is blind to. Claudius manipulates and corrupts Laertes, taking advantage of his rash state, and so is deliberately presented as a villain. By Act 4 vii, Laertes has discovered that Hamlet killed Polonius and his vengeful determination leads him to question Claudius as to why he has not yet taken action against Hamlet. Claudius gives â€Å"two special reasons,† which are that the Queen loves Hamlet and he loves the Queen, therefore he could not bear to act, â€Å"The Queen his mother lives almost by his looks. † In addition the common people love Hamlet and would support him, â€Å"Is the great love the general gender bear him. † Act 4 vii. The reasons Claudius gives reflect his manipulation of the truth and his cowardly attitude because he needs an instrument for his treachery. Both Claudius and Laertes are interrupted by a letter from Hamlet, â€Å"From Hamlet? Who brought them? † (Act 4 vii) Claudius is very surprised because he would have expected Hamlet dead. Claudius’ manipulation over Laertes is expressed again; â€Å"Will you be ruled by me? † Act 4 vii. Claudius must now make Laertes take revenge on Hamlet, because his plot to have Hamlet killed in England has failed. Claudius attempts to make Laertes a possible ally, by manipulating and flattering him, â€Å"Sir, this report of his†¦ to play with you. † Act 4 vii. The suggestion that Hamlet envies Laertes is possibly an invention on Claudius’ part because there is no other mention of this in the play. Claudius moves onto more urgent questions, â€Å"Laertes, was your father dear to you? † which makes Laertes appear helpless and eager to co-operate. Laertes comments that he would â€Å"cut his throat i’th’ church! † to prove himself to Polonius. Again Shakespeare uses these words significantly as they contrast strongly with Hamlet’s unwillingness to kill the king while he is at prayer. Laertes plays right into the kings’ hands when he offers to put poison on his sword tip, â€Å"I will do’t, / and for that purpose I’ll anoint my sword. † Act 4 vii. Ophelia’s drowning acts to further intensify Laertes’ revenge on Hamlet. The fencing match reinforces the presentation of Laertes as a revenge hero, as he acts in a typically rash and immoral manner. Shakespeare specifically presents this when Laertes becomes impatient and wounds Hamlet with the poisoned sword, â€Å"Have at you now! † (Act 5 ii) The indication that Laertes suddenly drives at Hamlet, and wounds him, reveals that he has now carried out his revenge. However, Laertes quickly notices the revenge on Hamlet has backfired â€Å"I am justly killed with mine own treachery,† (Act 5 vii) and that in addition he has also assisted Claudius in accidentally killing Gertrude. However, unlike Claudius, Laertes stays alive long enough to ask for forgiveness, â€Å"Exchange forgiveness with me, noble Hamlet. † Act 5 ii. It is significant that Hamlet accepts Laertes’ apology, in that he is not pursuing revenge against him, the opposite being true of Claudius. More importantly it illustrates the greatness of Hamlet in comparison to the relative weakness of Laertes. Fortinbras is rarely mentioned in the play, however, he is briefly outlined by Claudius at the beginning. Shakespeare portrays Fortinbras as the third revenger, thus developing a complex presentation of tragedy in that there are three revengers. Fortinbras is introduced as having a parallel life to Hamlet’s and being a minor character compared to Laertes and Hamlet. In the sub plot Fortinbras wishes to take revenge for the lands his father lost in a duel with old King Hamlet, â€Å"Now sir, young Fortinbras†¦ so by his father. † Act 1 i. It appears that Fortinbras is like his father, a warrior, and this contrasts with Hamlet, who although his own father was also a warrior, has been well educated. When Fortinbras visits Elsinore in the final scene, he discovers he has succeeded to the throne, â€Å"But I do prophesy th’election lights on Fortinbras. † Act 5 ii, suggesting Hamlet is preparing the future throne of Denmark, and wants Fortinbras to succeed him. It is significantly ironic that Fortinbras gives Hamlet a soldier’s funeral, even though he wasn’t a warrior. Therefore Shakespeare uses various effective ways to present the theme of revenge throughout â€Å"Hamlet. † He uses contrasts between characters; Hamlet, Laertes and Fortinbras and divides each scenario into sub plots, which he effectively incorporates to one in the concluding scenes. Hamlets’ soliloquies allow the audience to experience a greater perception of his complex character, particularly as he is the main focus in the theme of revenge. Similarly Shakespeare’s language and imagery effectively portrays emotions and allows the characters to reveal aspects of their nature to the audience. Bibliography â€Å"The Embassy of Death: An Essay on Hamlet† – G. Wilson Knight   www. ulg. ac. be/libnet/germa/haleteng. htm   http://absoloute shakespeare. com http://shakespeare. about. com.

Wednesday, August 28, 2019

Questionnaire Coursework Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words

Questionnaire - Coursework Example The American population, unlike their president, is against the use of violence in resolving the ISIS situation. This standpoint is different to their previous positions on using violence to resolve the Iraqi situations, under the rule of Saddam Hussein. In the historical context, Americans were supportive of the violence during Saddam Hussein’s era (UConn Today, 2011). Since then, the American people have been against the use of violence in Iraq. In support of the public opinion, President Obama has ruled sending combat troops. However, other alternatives such as the use of airstrikes are being considered. According to the hypothesis, Americans who have supported the use of violence in addressing the Iraqi situation, in the past, are likely to support its use in the current situation. The September 11 attacks on the World Trade Center are the catalyst in the decision to use violence in resolving Iraqi conflicts (, 2014). Americans, who are pro-violence in the ISIS situation, seek to retaliate against all forms of terrorists. The Republican portion of the American population supports the use of military action against the ISIS establishment. The Independent and Democrats portion, on the other hand, do not favor the use of military action. The Republicans, according to a research conducted by Gallup, are â€Å"worried† about Iraq. The study found out that 52% of Republicans, 39% of Independents and 34% of Democrats are in favor of using military action in Iraq (Gallup 2014). Now the Democrats enjoy a majority in the decision-making in the U.S. For this reason, President Obama is more likely to lean towards not sending combat troops to address the ISIS situation. However, as stated earlier they have opted to use other means in preventing Islamic militants from spreading their influence to other states. The Gallup survey presents a true representation of the attitude of Americans towards foreign intervention;

Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglass Essay - 2

Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglass - Essay Example He adopts a persuasive narration against slavery by explaining some of the ordeals he witnessed and expects that the reader should commit to freeing slaves since it is just, unconstitutional and unscriptural. It is axiomatic to squabble that slavery did not only negatively affect the slaves but also the slave owners. The slaves were denied some of the fundamental basic human rights. Slave owners treated slaves inhumanely to convince themselves that they were not equal to other human beings. The masters however did not realize that they were themselves becoming beasts by treating slaves in that manner. Most of the Masters became piously religiously so that they could not see themselves as depraved, brutal wretch. They were forced to pervert the Bible to justify slavery. He championed for the rights of the slaves and held that they were human and deserved to be treated equally. Douglas states that â€Å"I assert most unhesitatingly, that the religion of the South is a mere covering fo r the most horrid crimes—a justifier of the most appalling barbarity†¦a shelter under†¦which the darkest, foulest, grossest, and most infernal deeds of slaveholders find the strongest protection† (86) He argued that they were compared to horses in the farms. He presents that Sophia Auld treated him as a property and the initial efforts to educate him was thwarted by the husband. I his argument he held that slaves were like any other human being and should enjoy freedom enjoyed by the slave owners. (Douglass, 67)

Tuesday, August 27, 2019

Aristotle,nz Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words

Aristotle,nz - Essay Example The procedure of realizing excellence of character calls for individuals to develop a steadiness of character by adopting virtuous pursuits and shunning vice. Aristotle stressed the ethical as well as normative effect of virtuous regulations would contribute towards assisting or directing human beings in the pursuit of good. Thesis Statement: From Aristotle’s treatise, all human beings have the capability of acquiring the excellence of character and thought through the constant practice of constructive behaviors such as temperance and duty. Aristotle also wrote about the excellence of thought- or intellectual excellence. He specified that common sense as well as practical wisdom could also be considered as being a kind of excellence of thought. From his writings, it is evident that Aristotle believed that the combination of these two types of excellences is what would be the redeeming factor of the human race. The concepts on the excellence of thought and character tie into Aristotle’s ideas on temperance and intemperance. According to Aristotle, the acquisition of temperance is important because it brings a balance between the excesses that are easily embraced by the untamed human soul and the insensibility that characterizes extreme asceticism. This is directly related to the portrayal of temperance in any challenging situation. For instance, an individual who was practicing temperance would find a balance in the expression of his or her emotions. In a situation where there was a significant threat, the temperate individual’s expressions of fear would not be more or less that the situation called for. However, an intemperate person would either express extreme stoicism or extreme fear that did not correspond to the danger of existing threat. Essentially, the possession of temperance in a human being is what will keep the soul’s need to yearn for different things in harmony with common sense

Monday, August 26, 2019

Impact and Outcomes of Effectual Risk Based Planning Applications Essay

Impact and Outcomes of Effectual Risk Based Planning Applications - Essay Example Broad policy alternatives and a process of restructuring the existing practices have to be adopted in order to overcome the present impasse. I advocate a local level policy shift rather than a Federal level overhaul. Public administration consists of non-profit governmental institutions that form the bulk of a country’s administrative system. The process of planning at institutional level might require a cohesive and articulate strategy with a particular focus on existing inadequacies of the system. Non-profit public sector institutions operate on the principle of public welfare at the grassroots. However, there is an imbalance in these institutions when it comes to efficient management processes and institutional structures. Ill-defined targets often serve as hurdles that have to be surmounted even before the project is started. Project risk perception and management is another such area in which both leadership and intelligence are lacking. It is imperative to question the unprivileged immunity from public scrutiny that is almost taken for granted by local level administrators whose attitudes have, over the years, been conducive to producing negative outcomes in the sphere of public adm inistration. Causal factors include a host of fallacious assumptions too. Risk has a variety of meanings and senses that defy our articulation or assessment capabilities. Therefore in risk-based planning process there can be no perfection or certainty in determining a set of variables that impact on the planning process and the eventual outcomes. Both endogenous and exogenous variables impact on these outcomes, irrespective of our hypothetical presumptions on what shape those outcomes should take. Community or county level administration might seek to exert pressure on Federal bodies to facilitate legislation that cohort principles of public choice theory. For instance the Risk-Based Homeland Security Grants Act

Sunday, August 25, 2019

Research paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1250 words - 3

Research Paper Example In the last work by Langston Hughes that is I, too were identified varied themes, symbols and metaphors. This paper intends to unravel the commonality of those themes, symbols and metaphors in the two short stories by the author, which are Father and Son and Cora Unashamed. As was traced in the poem I, too by Langston Hughes, the short story Father and Son by the same writer delineates the atrociousness and brutality of the Jim Crow rules, but in a more detailed and intricate manner. Father and Son is a story about a Georgia white man Colonel Thomas Norwood who keeps a black woman Nora for a mistress and fathers five children by her. The story reveals the psychological and social might of the Jim Crow laws. In the story, Colonel Tom is showed to harbor feelings of constrained affection and liking for his sons from Cora, as is natural for any man. However, his allegiance to the Jim Crow system is evinced to be more doughty and mightier than his commitment to the voice of human feeling s within him. He not only tends to publically deny his children from his black maid Cora, but considers an open profession of affection by his son Brat to be a mark of dishonor and disgrace. As in I, too, in Father and Son, Hughes exposes the absurdity and fickleness of Jim Crow laws, which allow a white man to get into the most intimate of relationships with a black girl and to father sons by her, yet, do not allow one to socially and legally recognize the relationships that such intimacies and acts entail. As in other works of Hughes, the register attributed to the black characters further exposes the bestial and subhuman level to which the blacks character are supposed to stoop in Jim Crow America, replete with invectives like nigger, darkie and yard-nigger. In Father and Son, Hughes elaborately shows the decorum and mannerisms which the black dependants were expected to follow in subservience to Jim Crow norms that he alludes to in I, too. The black slaves owned by Colonel Tom a re never allowed to enter his home from the front door or to roam about in his inner chambers, irrespective of their long service to him or their relationship to him. The blacks were always to approach his home from the backdoor and allowed to gather only in the kitchen. Like a dog, they were expected to maintain a respectable distance from and decorum with their white master. The story also reinforces the social status attributed to black characters in Hughes’ other works. All the black characters are shown to be serving in menial positions. Colonel Tom do tries to be good to his children by extending to them educational and other opportunities and facilities. However, the magnanimity of his concern for his children never dares to cross the boundaries marked by Jim Crow laws. The story also reveals the fear of marginalization of the whites, as in Hughes’ other works. When Brat, the youngest son of Colonel tries to rebel against the constraints of segregation and recla im his relationship with his father, the system comes crashing down on him and his brother. Cora Unashamed is one of the masterpieces of Langston Hughes. Though the writer predominantly repeats the themes, symbols and metaphors in the story with which he deals with in his

Saturday, August 24, 2019

Reflection Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words - 27

Reflection - Essay Example I therefore decided to stop depending on this scholarship anymore. It’s not taken long yet, I’m already feeling like I ruined one of the best opportunities that I’ve had in my life. It’s a feeling that continuously haunts me and sometimes I do not actually know what to do about it. I realize that such opportunities are very rare and many just wish to have the chance I got, to further their studies, but they haven’t been as lucky as me. I’ve therefore come to learn that I hurriedly made a wrong decision without having some good time with myself to know the worth of this scholarship opportunity. It is the most inappropriate decision I consider to have made in my entire life. In a nutshell, I’ve just lost the scholarship that I was lucky to have won. Right now I regret to have made such an irrational decision. It’s haunting me, but, so far, there’s nothing I can do to get it back. Just like the saying, I truly didn’t realize the value of my scholarship until now that I’ve lost

Friday, August 23, 2019

Creation Myths of Religion Research Paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1250 words - 1

Creation Myths of Religion - Research Paper Example For example, big bang theory succeeded partially in explaining the evolution of universe. But it failed to give an accurate account about the creation of matter in this universe. It says that hydrogen clouds and dust particles were there earlier which transformed in to this universe after lot of expansions, contractions and explosions. Religions on the other hand have better explanations about the origin of this universe. Religions believe in the superpower of God and they have no doubt in assuming that God has created this universe. However, different religions believe in different Gods. Moreover, religions have different opinions about the methods adopted by the God for the creation of this universe. This paper analyses religious views about the creation of this universe. Christians believe that God created the universe and the entire things in the universe including living and nonliving things. They believe that God has three different forms; father, Son and the Holy Spirit. Even though Father created the entire universe, Son got the authority to look after the people in this universe. In Genesis first and second chapters of Holy Bible, the creation incidents were mentioned. According to the information available in these chapters, God created this universe and the whole things available in this universe. Initially the earth was shapeless; however, God gave shape to this universe with the creation of water and other land objects. The darkness of this universe was removed by God with the creation of light. â€Å"God said, "Let there be light". And there was light. God divided the day from the night, naming them day and night. This was the first day and God saw that it was good† (Creation Stories).The creation continued till the seventh day. On the second day God created heavens which separate water from earth. Same way God created dry land, plants, animals and other living things in the following

Thursday, August 22, 2019

Into the World Essay Example for Free

Into the World Essay Into the world shows changes in an individual’s life through their personal experiences. One individual will go through many barriers and obstacles to achieve the change. The prescribed text, Educating Rita by Willy Russell and the related text, ‘The Story of Tom Brennan’ by JC Burke explores different and similar pathways to how the characters in those texts change through their new experiences. In the prescribed text ‘Educating Rita’ by Willy Russell is about a 26 years old woman, hairdresser Rita who starts seeks motivation in education to motivate her and move into a higher educated class leaving her working class behind. Russell uses extended metaphors and imageries throughout the play ‘window’ this symbolises as the physical barrier for the relationship between Rita and Frank and into the world. The colloquial language is a barrier for Rita at the start of the play when she enters Frank’s room ‘I’m comin’ in, aren’t I? which shows Rita’s education level isn’t that high. Also, Rita’s misunderstanding interpreted when Frank’s makes references to literature texts ‘Howard’s end’ Rita’s respond that it sounds ‘filthy’. Rita comes back from ‘summer’ break to the city of London; she becomes more mature as she meets her new flatmate Trish who gave her motivation to reach her goal to have a brighter future. In the related text ‘The Story of Tom Brennan’ by JC Burke is about a family after a brutal car accident their life’s was like chaos and many things in the family fell apart. Tom Brennan adopts a new way of looking at life through the use of first person narrative and visual imagery â€Å"everything I thought I knew about who I was and who the Brennan’s were changed forever† implies Tom’s innocence to alter his feeling of grief towards his recklessness brother Daniel because of the trouble Daniel make in the town. His family decided to move into a different town, Coghill implies a change in community dynamics through the use of colloquial language.

Wednesday, August 21, 2019

Case Study Wal-Mart Essay Example for Free

Case Study Wal-Mart Essay Evaluate the general environment of Wal-Mart using the framework in Chapter 2. What are the key opportunities and threats facing Wal-Mart? (This is the OT of a SWOT analysis)Wal-Marts builds its stores in towns with a population size of 5000-25,000 people. Wal-Mart has recently started to tap into the more populated city suburbs by building smaller less obtrusive stores in those regions. Wal-Mart targets every age group from infants to senior citizens. Wal-Marts geographically places its stores in rural less populated areas with very few employment opportunities. Wal-Mart tries to attract all income levels by selling brand name items along with generic brand items. Wal-Mart approaches its global market by evaluating market potential based on economic and political risk, growth potential, and availability of real estate for development. In countries that had became saturated Wal-Mart used acquisitions to acquire ownership. In markets that were not saturated and land was easily accessible Wal-Mart used organic growth. The technology that Wal-Mart uses to run their business is unmatched. They have a network of satellites that can track a person purchase and automatically refurbish those items from suppliers without any human intervention. Wal-Mart maximizes efficiency by using effective technology to gain a competitive advantage. Wal-Mart has grown into a global empire and has become the world largest private employer and the number one retailer in the world. Despite all of this success Wal-Mart still has a huge opportunity to grow. Wal-Mart continues to adapt to the ever-changing economy by remodeling their store and by placing the customer as their number one priority. Wal-Mart took advantage of its rural locations early on and gained a significant competitive advantage, now Wal-Mart is taking on the urban environment by placing stores in the outskirts of major metropolitan areas. At first local residents rejected the idea of having a Wal-Mart in their neighborhood for fear it would drive down property value and unwanted individuals to their suburbanite neighborhood. Wal-Mart quickly resolved this problem by changing the format and size of their stores located in these regions. The only threats to Wal-Mart faces are mostly from within (eg..) lawsuits employee disputes and the threat to become unionized. Use Porters Five Forces Model to analyze the global retailing industry. Given this analysis, is the industry attractive or unattractive? Support  your decision. Wal-Mart is a huge threat to new entrants. Wal-Mart has created huge barriers to new entries by offering one stop shopping. Wal-Marts Super Centers offer everything from prepared meals to sports gear. Grocery chains have taken a huge hit because of this, even Kmart is feeling the heat, there stock hit rock bottom in 2004. The discount clothing and apparels have also taken a bite from this retail giant. Wal-Mart has produced a very proficient economy of scale from incremental improvements that they have acquired since becoming so large. Manufactures scramble to try and keep up with the huge demand that Wal-Mart places on its suppliers, this further reduces the prices of goods and services for their customers. Small-scale entries are nearly impossible in a region where Wal-Mart is located. Large-scale entries face the retaliation factor when trying to tap into Wal-Marts market because suppliers are forced to do things the Wal-Mart way. Wal-Mart has successfully customized many of their products and forced manufactures have been forced to produce the Wal-Mart brand. Wal-Mart has taken total control of the bargaining power of suppliers. Wal-Mart has a small group of buyers based in Bentonville Arkansas thats in charge of managing the purchasing of all retail stores. Wal-Mart is responsible for selling 35% of all pet food, 24% of all toothpaste, the largest volume of jewelry, groceries, DVDs, CDs, toys, guns, diapers, sporting goods, bedding, and numerous other things. This has put the retail giant in a very favorable negotiating position with suppliers. Wal-Mart has generated a huge market of loyal buyers by supplying them with the lowest possible prices for quality products. With Wal-Mart having such a huge share of the market and good prices there is no need for buyers to seek deals elsewhere. Wal-Mart has proven to be a huge threat of substitute products in several industries for example the jewelry industry, Wal-Mart has become one of the leading jewelry dealers in the North America. Wal-Mart has also created its own brand name for several of its items that have been so successful that manufactures are forced to produce products bearing the Wal-Mart brand. Wal-Mart competitors have to be very calculated with their responses because Wal-Mart is so large it can really drive a business under ground (Kmart). What is Wal-Marts business-level strategy? Is the strategy appropriate to offset the forces in the industry? Do you recommend any changes? If not, support your decision why you would not recommend any changes. Wal-Mart uses Integrated Lost Leadership/Differentiation Strategy. Wal-Mart has offset the forces in the industry by creating the most efficient supply chain in the industry. Efficient production has allowed Wal-Mart to keep cost low and pass own saving to its customers. Wal-Mart has successfully used Integrated Cost Leadership/Differentiation Strategy by setting the pace in new technology and adapting quickly to new technologies in their external environment. Concentration on the needs of its core customers (discount retailers), Wal-Mart has created a friendly family environment thats economically smart and beneficial to its patrons. Flexibility is one of Wal-Marts strongest assets, which allows them to complete primary and support activities in ways that allow them to produce somewhat differentiated products at a low cost. I would not personally recommend any changes to this strategy because it has made Wal-Mart the worlds largest retailer. What is your evaluation of the leadership at Wal-Mart?Wal-Mart has become the most successful business in the world through its un-yielding leadership. Mr. Walton has laid the foundation for success for years to come. The leaders at Wal-Mart focus on providing the customer with the highest possible quality at the lowest possible cost. They have redefined the retail industry with their cutting edge technology and flexibility that is un-matched by any competitor. The fact that upper management travel in economy class shows a lot about the character within the organization. The leadership at Wal-Mart has made the world we live in much smaller through economic availability and convenience. The leaders at Wal-Mart are a true example of profit through customer satisfaction. Works Cited Hitt, M., Ireland, R., Hoskisson, R. (2007), Strategic Management, Competitiveness andGlobalization: Concepts and Cases. 7th ed. Mason: Thomson South-Western(August 21, 2006). Global Labor Strategies: Wal-Mart: The Homefront. RetrievedSeptember 18, 2007,

Is Street Art a Legitimate Art Form?

Is Street Art a Legitimate Art Form? Street art originated in the late 1960s with the advent of graffiti and tagging in Philadelphia and New York City (Walsh, 1996: 3). It has been developing ever since as new styles, forms and techniques are created and utilised by street artists (Walsh, 1996: 12). But street art is not generally viewed as art worthy of the status of works in a gallery or a museum, although as Walsh says, it is not strictly denied the status of genuine art because it utilises various aesthetic elements (1996). However, street art is often seen as radical or unconventional because of its location on walls and doors, on train carriages and in tunnels (Cooper et al, 1984: 15). These public spaces provide blank canvases for street artists, yet using them means that street art is almost always illegal viewed as a form of vandalism (Cooper et al, 1984; Chaflant and Prigoff, 1987: 42). While more legal spaces for street art have opened in recent years, there still remains the question: is it really art? In this paper I would like to explore this idea by making reference both to the history of graffiti and street art, the (il)legalities surrounding it, the ideas expressed through it and the ways in which the aesthetics created by some street artists make their work undeniably art. Street art as vandalism Id like to explore some of the oppositions to street art, to understand why street artists are vilified and their work denied the status of art. Walsh argues that the only reason why this occurs is because of the location of street art (1996: 2-3). He strongly believes that street art cannot be disregarded as a criminal act simply because it is not presented in a conventional manner, that is, framed and placed in a museum or gallery (1996: 3). I agree with Walsh, and believe that while street art may be unsolicited, and sometimes termed vandalism, that this does not meant it is not art. Nonetheless, the illegality of street art has stood in the way of it becoming recognised as a legitimate art form. As Ferrell explains, there are an impressive array of control technologies and techniques aligned against [street art], including a sort of public surveillance of street artists by concerned citizens who have been led to believe that street art is criminal (2004: 35). Ferrell cites exampl es from the United States in which antigraffiti campaigners have proposed punishments for street artists, including: a bill requiring that kids convicted of writing graffiti be publicly paddled à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¦ public caning à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¦ suggestions of lopping of hands à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¦ and publicly spray-painting [street artists] genitals (2004: 36). Understanding these angry sentiments means understanding why street artists are vilified. This also means recognising the terms street art and graffiti as having two different connotations. Street art has in recent years been seen as something with intrinsic value, with artist Banksy earning large sums of money for his wall stencils, and street art in Melbourne, for example, being recognised as part of the citys heritage and culture. However the term graffiti is still linked to the notion of criminal behaviour, and anti-graffiti organisations such as Removal of Graffiti Everywhere (RAGE) are committed to making street art in all forms illegal. Both Walsh and Ferrell argue that graffitis negative associations are due to its links with tagging, a style of graffiti done very fast, within a few seconds with the aim that his or her tag be seen by as many people as possible (Walsh, 1996: 12). But Cooper et al argue that tagging is in a different category to other forms of graffiti because it does not have the same aesthetic qualities (1984: 15). It is, in their words scribble (1984: 15). Here therefore I would like to make a distinction between graffiti as street art and graffiti as tagging. I agree with Cooper et al (1984) that tagging does not hold the same aesthetic or expressive qualities as other forms of street art such as stencilling or graffiti murals. But what I find interesting about tagging is the fact that it involves anonymity and an alias which gives the writer à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¦ a new identity (Walsh, 1996: 12). This idea I would like to explore further with reference to street arts illegality. Anonymity, resistance and historic significance Like taggers, acclaimed stencil artist Banksy does not reveal his identity to the public. This reinforces the idea that there is something even about his widely celebrated form of street art that is illicit. Similar is Melbourne street artist Deb, who goes only by nickname and is hard to track down to a name or place. In fact many street artists use either aliases or nicknames that ensure them privacy and no attention from lawmakers. The anonymity of street artists once again goes back to the beginnings of graffiti writing in the 1960s, when gang members and other individuals graffitied and tagged urban spaces as a means of self-expression. Walsh argues that the monikers adopted by graffiti artists at the time worked both to allow the individual to remain anonymous, but also to provide him or her with a means to express outrage and resistance through a persona (1996: 122). Ferrell agrees with Walshs idea that street art is a form of resistance, stating that such artists employ partic ular forms of graffiti as a means of resisting particular constellations of legal, political, and religious authority (2004: 34). I would like to consider the idea of street art as resistance as the first part of my argument for street art as a valid artform. As a form of self expression, street art is a creative method of communicating with the general public, in a forum much more open than an art gallery. Street art communicates the artists identity and his or her ideas, and because it is visual, it appeals to people regardless of their cultural, lingual, or racial differences (Cooper and Chalfant, 1984: 66-67). Walsh notes that street artists see their art as a rebellion against a repressive political and economic order: against established art markets or gallery systems, against Western ideas of capitalism and against ideas about private property (1996: 47). What comes out of Walshs analysis is that street artists are doing what all other great art movements have done before them rebelling against established ideas and mores about what art should be, and using the power of self-expression to appeal to cert ain audiences. In this way, street artists can be compared to groups such as the Fauves, the Futurists or the Impressionists, breaking from tradition and forging new ground in the world of art. According to Walsh, such aspects of street art make it important as an art form not only for its rebellion against art traditions, but those of politics and the state (1996: 49-50). This also fits into Camnitzers argument that art should be recognised as a universal set of skills and values within which everybody has freedom of expression, showing how art as a form of resistance works: to perturb society and achieve results similar to those of political actions. But distinct from political actions à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¦ art should shape culture on a deeper level and have a more long-lasting impact (1994: 38). Arguably, street art works to shape culture through resistance and rebellion while also influencing and perturbing society because of its ability to straddle the line between vandalism and art. Because street art is unique both due to its location and often its themes, it has the potential to influence the viewer and create change. As Williamson argues, it is the resistive power of street art that makes it important because it allows for the expression of ideas outside hegemonic norms (2004). She gives the example of street art in South Africa during apartheid which was the means for individuals to speak out against oppression, thus showing that popular culture resistance has a vital role in the life of the community and the struggle for freedom (2004: 8) Following Spitz I would also argue that street art is important as an art form because it represents history through its acts of resistance (1991: 17). As Ferrell discusses, the fact that places like the Berlin Wall were decorated with images representing hope and freedom, and graffiti that denounced the separation of East and West Germany shows just how much street art can act as a symbol of the times (2004: 34). This makes me think of works such as Goyas Guernica a mural not unlike some of those on the Berlin Wall, that shows the horrors of war and suffering. If we are to think about street art as representative of such historic and often horrific moments, then it is hard to denounce it as vandalism. Aesthetics of street art While I have argued that the expressive, resistive qualities of street art are undeniable, analysing the aesthetic qualities also show that street art is a viable artform. The production of street art requires established techniques and styles, most particularly in the use of spraypaint. Spraypaint is used in various ways for different artistic effects. As Walsh explains, street art developed over the years from tagging to established graffiti practices such as wildstyle, an integral, flowing piece of art (1996: 61). In more recent years the advent of stencilling has introduced a new technique into street art which requires artists to learn different effective ways of expressing their ideas (Melbourne Street Art, 2010). The techniques learnt add to the aesthetic qualities of street art and therefore show how image is linked to insight, which Spitz argues is of central significance to considering something art (2004). This is because emotional and intellectual responses to art cause a transfer of meaning between the artists intentions and the image he or she produces (1991: 2). The completion of street art involves imagination, planning, and effort, and is therefore similar to the execution of a more traditional form of art like a painting. The street artists must first do a sketch, then plan out characters and select colours. Next, the artist selects the surface on which her or she will work and creates a preliminary outline. If it is a stencil, the artist will draw the outline onto thick film and cut it out. Colours and ornamentation can then be applied using spray paint. Walsh argues that the completed product can be analysed according to the elements of aesthetic style: line, colour, composition, balance, tine and harmony (1996: 81-86). The structures and characters in the work can be read as a narrative, and the artists intentions communicated to the viewer (Walsh, 1996: 86). I would also argue that street art also improves areas that would otherwise be considered ugly, like abandoned buildings or industrial areas. One only needs to look at all of the street art in Melbournes colourful lanes to see how a place that could otherwise be an eyesore is made beautiful through street art. The impermanence of street art It is interesting to consider Walshs ideas about the impermanence of street art as a unique artistic factor. He argues that because of its quick removal from surfaces by councils and other clean up services that street art needs to be appreciated as fleeting, especially as: A piece which might be sixty feet long, twelve feet high, and take twenty to thirty cans of paint and at least eight hours to produce might be gone in a matter of minutes (1996: 108). In that sense, it is understandable why galleries such as Sydneys May Lane and Melbournes Graffiti Management Plan work to protect street art from being obliterated. May Lane provides removable outdoor panels on which street artists can work, and which are stored for later exhibition, while the Graffiti Management Plan works to protect laneway graffiti. Although they failed in April 2010 by accidentally painting over a Banksy work in Hosier Lane, the Graffiti Management Plan protected another Banksy work by placing it under perspex to remain forever as a street artwork. And as more and more tourists flock to Melbourne specifically to see street art, the lanes of Melbourne are taking on the form of outdoor galleries perhaps not that unlike traditional exhibition spaces, yet more public and therefore accessible. Conclusion In this paper I have argued that street art in both stencil and graffiti forms should be considered viable forms of art. I have shown that while the location of these works might make them unconventional, and indeed deemed vandalism in many cases, that they are nevertheless important both as an expression of individual identity and as a mode of resistance. Like all art, they act to reflect the artists ideas and the historical period in which he or she lived. They provide a break from tradition and they inspire the viewer, while also being aesthetically pleasing. While I differentiate some forms of street art from others, and show that tagging is perhaps less likely to be considered art than stencilling or mural graffiti, I believe that street art generally should be recognised as an important part of our society and an expression of culture and heritage.

Tuesday, August 20, 2019

The effect of osmosis in potato cells with different concentrations of

The effect of osmosis in potato cells with different concentrations of sucrose solution Aim: To test the effect of different concentrations of sucrose solution to osmosis in a potato cells by putting potato pieces in test tubes of water containing different concentrations of sucrose solution. Scientific Theory: Osmosis is defined as the movement of water molecules across a partially permeable membrane from a region of high water concentration to a region of low water concentration. In a high concentration of water the amount of solute (e.g. sugar) is low. This could be called a weak or dilute solution. In a low concentration of water the amount of solute (e.g. sucrose) is high. This could be called a strong or concentrated solution. When two such solutions are divided by a partially permeable membrane the water will move from the area of high concentration to the area of low concentration, until both sides are equal (have reached equilibrium). Knowing that osmosis will occur across a partially permeable membrane whenever there is a difference between the water concentrations on the two sides of the membrane, and knowing that when this happens to cells they will either become turgid if water flows into them, or flaccid if water flows out of them, and thus change their volume, we want to test the hypothesis that: If the concentration of a solution into which a cylinder of potato is placed is greater than a certain level the cylinder will contract, and if the concentration is less than that level it will expand. The cell membrane in cells is partially permeable and the vacuole contains a sugar/salt solution. So when a cell is placed in distilled water (high water concentration) water will move across the partially permeable membrane into the cell (lower water concentration) by osmosis, making the cell swell. This cell is now referred to as turgid. If done with potato cells the cells would increase in volume and mass because of the extra water. If these potato cells were placed in a solution with a low water concentration, then the opposite would happen. Water would move out of the cell into the solution. In extreme cases the cell membrane breaks away from the cell wall and the cell is referred to as flaccid. The potato cells will have decreased in volume and mass. The greater the concentration of water in the so... ... for example, with a carrot or an apple to see if osmosis affects them in the same way as it does potato. I would also widen the range of sugar concentrations to include 1.1M 2M. Moreover, I would like to see if and when the cells reach a maximum and minimum weight. Temperature could also be changed, for example the samples could be placed in different test tubes at different temperatures to see if temperature played its part in the osmosis of potatoes. 5 sets of 3 potatoes could be placed in test tubes at 10oC, 20oC, 30oC, 50oC and 60oC. Then leave them for 24 hours making sure all the variables in the first experiment still apply however just using one molar solution. Then after 24 hours re-weigh the samples and record the result. I would expect that at high temperatures the potato samples would gain the most weight. This is because at high temperatures the water molecules would move faster and therefore equal the concentration faster. A preliminary experiment could be set up beforehand to find out how long the experiment should be kept going because if the concentration of the potatoes equalises then the weight of the potatoes will be almost exactly the same.

Monday, August 19, 2019

Gun Control Essay -- Second Amendment The Right To Bear Arms

â€Å"A well-regulated militia, being necessary to the security of a free state, the right of the people to keep and bear arms, shall not be infringed.† Does our second amendment really give rights to civilians to carry guns, which are a mechanical device that expels a bullet which can accurately travel colossal distances? As the U.S. sees it today, guns are legal to anyone who fits their criteria. Guns have been used for hundreds of years in the history of our world and nation. However, gun control has been a major debating issue during the past few decades. On one side, there are those who completely agree with the control laws and on the other there are those who oppose gun control laws all together. Gun control opponents provide many justifications for carrying a gun, such as the second amendment, self-defense, hunting, or target practice.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Guns are not for everyone. Certain individuals cannot handle a firearm safely, and some individuals choose to use firearms unsuitably. Our society has passed laws regulating the possession and use of firearms, and more legislation is being considered. Most of this legislation restricts, to some degree, the rights of individuals to possess or use firearms. â€Å"Some limitations may be necessary, but some modern legislation has gone too far. Society benefits from firearms in the hands of conscientious citizens. Attempts to keep firearms away from these citizens do more harm than good.† (stated by the NRA)   ...

Sunday, August 18, 2019

Essay --

Dr. Seuss was one of the influential well known children's author. His books are still read to children today. My personal favorite book of his is "Horton Hears a Who!". His real name is Theodor Seuss Geisel. He was born on March 2, 1904. Was an a American writer, poet, and cartoonist. He was most widely known for his children's books written and illustrated as Dr. Seuss. He had used the pen name Dr. Theophrastus Seuss in college and later used Theo LeSieg and Rosetta Stone. Geisel Published 46 children's books, often characterized by imaginative characters, rhyme, and frequent use of anapestic meter. His most-celebrated books include the bestselling Green Eggs and Ham, The Cat in the Hat, The Lorax, One Fish Two Fish Red Fish Blue Fish, Horton Hatches the Egg, Horton Hears a Who!, and How the Grinch Stole Christmas!. His works have spawned numerous adaptions including 11 television specials, four features films, a Broadway musical and four television series. He won the Lewis Carroll Shelf Award in 1958 for Horton Hatches the Egg and again in 1961 for And to think That I Saw It on mulberry street. Geisel also worked as an illustrator for advertising campaigns, most notably for Flit and Standard Oil, and as a political cartoonist for PM, a New York City newspaper. During World War II, he worked in an animation department of the United States Army, where he wrote Design for Death, a film that later won the 1947 Academy Award for Documentary Feature. He was a perfectionist in his work and would sometimes spend up to a year on a book. It was not uncommon for him to throw out 95% of his material until he settled on a theme for his book. For a writer he was usual in that he preferred to be paid only after he finished his work rathe... ...heir original appearances. In May 1954, Life magazine published a report on illiteracy among school children, witch concluded children were not learning because their books were boring. Accordingly, William Ellsworth Spaulding, director of the education division at Houghton Mifflin, who later became its chairman, compiled a list of 348 words he left were important for first graders to recognize and ask Geisel to cut the list to 250 words and write a book using only those words. Spaulding challenged Geisel to make a children book that they cannot put down. Nine months later, Geisel, using 236 of the words given to him, completed The Cat in the Hat. It retained the drawing style, verse rhythms, and all of the imaginative power of Geisel's earlier works, but because if its simplified vocabulary it could be read by beginner readers. The Cat in the Hat

Saturday, August 17, 2019

Political Islam and the West Essay

The author, John Esposito, tries to define what political Islam is and its connection and presence in Southeast Asian countries and, most especially, in the Western part of the world. â€Å"Political Islam, or more commonly Islamic fundamentalism, remains a major presence in governments and oppositional politics from North Africa to Southeast Asia. † Esposito made some strong points regarding Islam, political Islam, and the West. While it is true that most of the Muslims have become more keen and observant with regard to the practice of their faith, many of them are adapting to the continuing development of the world. These people have come to realize that they do not have to limit themselves to the rules of their religion, and that there are numerous opportunities out there if they allowed themselves to take part in it. They have to realize that the world is completely different from what they knew from the past, and that they can practice their religion and still experience what the world has to offer at the same time. Esposito states that Islamic belief has reemerged as an alternative to the perceived failure of secular ideologies like capitalism, nationalism, and socialism. However, Islam reemerged because they chose to do so. They realized that it was time to change what others thought of them and that they should not be submitting themselves to the judgment of other cultures and religious groups. It has been too long that they isolated themselves to a certain part of the world where they did not allow the Western culture to become a part of their own. Although they are still adamant to adapt this culture, or any other culture for that matter, they are willing to explore the world and its recent progress. They are more willing to expand their horizons at this time compared to the past. â€Å"Early underestimation of religion as a source of identity, as well as a political force has led to its overestimation today. † Religion might have been underestimated in the past but it surely is not overestimated today. In contrast, the world learned how to acknowledge the presence of religious groups and the contributions they make to the world and the society. They are not being overestimated because if they were, everyone should have chosen and participated within their own group and practice its customs and beliefs. There would be no one person who do does not belong to a particular religion. The author also states that secular Westerners tag the Muslims who speak of Islam as a comprehensive way of life, as people who are retrogressive and resistant to change. Not all Westerners think this way. Some believe in respecting the sacredness of the Muslim religion and that Muslims are not resistant to change. They are, however, more committed to their religion than other groups. They do not see their religion as something that they have to do once a week or once a year. They see it as a part of their everyday lives. It matters to them that they belong to a group and that support is always available to them. The article also indicates that â€Å"many believe that Islamists were not representative and would be rejected in popular elections. † This is only true because many people assume negative things about the Muslim people. They generalize the things they see on the media to all Muslims, which makes it hard for them to give the Muslims a chance to prove them otherwise. It is very important to state that not all Muslims are the same as portrayed in the media. Political Islam and the West may have numerous different perspectives. However, they have one goal common to both sides, which is to provide a better way of life for their people. The Muslims are only beginning to adapt to the changes around them and have more

Friday, August 16, 2019

Organizational Culture of Starbucks

Appendages Research Paper Project title: Management 1 & 2 Program: BAA Faculty responsible: Walter Improvise Due date: Wee k 8 Weighting: 30% of the final grade for the subject. 70% on written material and 30% on presentation. All presentations will occur on the last adz of class. Content: A word document including between 3,000 and 4,000 words non including a literature review of at least 4 sources with at least half not from internet. All materials must come from academic sources. Project Overview: To enable students demonstrate their understanding of Managing Culture and how do they adapt it within an international atmosphere.Overall Aim: 1 . To enable students demonstrate their understanding of MGM and to learn from contemporary issues that will help them become more effective managers. 2. To enable students demonstrate their understanding of methodology in writing and to learn from the specific issues of writing a paper. Learning Outcomes: Demonstrate a basic understanding of us ing research methods within organizations. Understand how research approach are going to be effective on business issues. Begin forming research methodology skills specially those that can be applied in the business environment.A Company with a strong organizational culture and how it's Implemented and maintained Topic: Analyze the competitive issue and it's effects on the international business environment, . Purpose: Organizational culture is a term used more and today's business world. The focus of your paper and presentation should be: What specific actions ; practices could be used in business to acquire high levels of performance? How do these actions ; practices reflect or not reflect the customers behaviors, concepts ; models studied in this class.Tasks: The following major areas M in the written and the oral reservation: Description of the background, traits ; skills of the issue. Description of influences on an international context What can we learn from this issue; guide lines for effective strategies derived from the analysis? Your presentations should be clear ; reflect application of the material covered in this course. To enhance your presentation, visual aids, specific examples ; class involvement techniques are encouraged. Attendance is required of all students during all presentations.Each presentation will have a total of 7 minutes for each project and an additional 3 minutes will be allotted for questions and discussion. The written material used for your presentation should be handed to the lecturer one week before your scheduled presentation for screening. This presentation will count for 10% of your final subject average. Remission of documents During the last day, depending of your class, the following material shall be handed in: List of references including at least 1 Journals and 2 internet sources which will be used for the project.A literature review of the information sources used for this project. All tardiness will be counted in the same manner as explained at the end of the section for the main project. The following material should be handed to the lecturer on the date of presentation. These should include: 1 electronic file with all your resources used for the creation of your project ( articles, book references, interviews, field search, etc. ) Your power point presentation The word document.I Purpose or controlling idea is established initially, but inconsistently attended to. Paper shows some unity of purpose, though some material may not be well aligned. I Establishes strong sense of purpose, either explicitly or implicitly. Controlling purpose governs development and organization of the text. Attends to purpose as paper unfolds. | 2. Engagement with the text I Does not connect well to the source textures not show evidence of having understood the reading(s) that should inform the paper.Repeats or summarizes source text without analyzing or critiquing. I Shows evidence that materials were read and t hat those texts have shaped the student's writing. Shows basic understanding and ability to engage the substance of the text(s). Goes beyond repetition or summary of source text(s). I Shows clearly that the student read and understood the source text(s) that inform the paper. Summarizes key points or issues in the source text and then critically analyzes or synthesizes those ideas with the student's own ideas.Extends the ideas of the source text in interesting ways. | 3. Use of source material I It is often not clear whether information comes from the text vs.. The student. Len-text citations and end-of-text references are not formatted according to an appropriate style sheet. I Source materials are cited, though not always consistently. Let is generally clear when information comes from source text(s). Most in-text citations have appropriately formatted end-of-text references. I Source materials are introduced, conceptualized, and made relevant to the purpose of the paper. T is alw ays clear when information, opinions, or facts come from a source as opposed to coming from the student. Source materials are conventionally documented according to academic style (PAP, Category I Low Scores 1 or 2 | Average Score 31 High Scores 4 or 5 | 4. Organization I end. Paragraphs unpredictably structured. I Some evidence of organization, with appropriate moves in the introduction and conclusion and some partitioning in the body. Most paragraphs have topic sentences with supporting details.I Establishes clear pattern of development, so the paper feels organized and orderly from beginning to end. Uses effective generalization/ support patterning. Strong paragraphing. | 5. Support I Moves from idea to idea without substantial development; lacks depth. Lacks support for arguments or claims. I Achieves some depth and specificity of discussion. Provides specific detail in some places. I Develops specific ideas in depth with strong and appropriate supporting examples, data, experie nces. | 6. Style I Lacks control over sentence structure; difficult to follow.Little control over sentence patterns of subordination and coordination. Requires the reader to backtrack to make sense. Uses wrong words and awkward phrasing. I Style is competent, though not engaging or inventive. Shows reasonable command over phrasing and word choice. Some useful connections from sentence to sentence. I Student clearly controls the pace, rhythm, and variety of sentences. Sentence style is smooth and efficient, with good use of subordination and coordination. Words are well chosen and phrasing is apt and precise.Sentences move smoothly from one to the next, with clear moves that open, develop, and close topics. | 7. Command of sentence-level conventions Many errors of punctuation, spelling, capitalization (mechanics). Many grammatical errors (agreement, tense, case, number, pronoun use). I Some typical errors are in evidence, but overall, the writing is correct. I Few, if any, errors of punctuation, spelling, capitalization (mechanics). Few if any grammatical errors (agreement, tense, case, number, pronoun use). I

Thursday, August 15, 2019

Impacting factors on human social service Essay

Socio cultural factors are norms, values, beliefs, material and non material objects that are passed on from one generation to another in any given society .Socio cultural factors are crucial in any developmental aspect of a community.(Noyo Ndangwe p230) There is considerable interest in analyzing these factors that are impacting on human social service delivery and these are economic, religion, political and socio-cultural factors which are of special significance because of their tendency to shape the context or foundation for the operation of any other set of factors that operate upon human social service delivery. In this regard, we will try to look at one factor, that is, Socio cultural factor how it is impacting on human social service delivery. First and foremost would like to define the key concepts this assignment. 1. Socio means interaction. 2. Culture means the beliefs, customs, practices, and social behaviour of a particular nation or people. 3. Factors mean something that contributes to or has an influence on the outcome of something. 4 Impacting means to have an immediate and strong effect on something or somebody. 5 Social Service These are welfare programs aimed at enriching human life 6 Delivery means taking something to somebody.  The first to way to discuss this will be to try to analyse how socio-cultural factors affect the performance of Primary Health Care. There is now a large body of literature on the social and cultural determinants of health which ‘refer to both the specific features and pathways by which societal conditions affect health. The WHO has, for example, identified a number of socio cultural factors and conditions. The list of factors includes (i) cultural beliefs and taboos, (ii) gender inequality, and (iii) the urban – rural divide. The socio-cultural factors impacting on health will differ  between societies and even within sub-cultures within the same society. Thus the factors in a developed society will tend to differ from those that are operative in a backward, underdeveloped society. Factors such as urban-rural migration, unemployment, education, gender inequality, lack of money, transportation, distance to health facility, cultural inhibition, fear of going alone to health facilities, inability to make informed choices and the need to obtain permission from some authority figure such as the husband in the case of some married women have been cited (Social Determinants of Health: Nigerian Perspective: 2005). Social cultural taboos and social meanings attached to certain diseases and their causes are other socio cultural factors that are impacting on service delivery. Cultural beliefs and taboos Cultural beliefs and taboos impact upon the performance of the Primary Health Care in several ways. First, they shape forms of behaviour that lead to certain health outcomes. As an example, consider beliefs about fertility and family planning. People living in rural areas tend to want to have more children and not to want to use the more modern methods of family control (PHC, WHO: 2004). This has implication for population growth, the incidence of child and maternal mortality and the number in the population seeking access to health care. As another example, we can also consider the case of beliefs about HIV/AIDS. Quoting a UNESCO Report, Kickbusch et al (2002:4-5) have observed that in some parts of Africa, ‘people believe that clean and well-dressed individuals cannot become infected or that having sexual intercourse with a virgin will cure AIDS’. Ladipo et al (2003) have also reported a study on the perceptions of Gate keepers, the custodians of cultural beliefs and moral norms, about sexuality and HIV/AIDS in Nigeria. Using in-depth interviews with teachers, media representatives, religious, political and traditional leaders and focus group discussions among parents the study reported that the culture downplayed the sexual mode of transmitting the disease; ‘condom promotion was not accepted on religious grounds by most participants. Cultural beliefs not only also shape how individuals respond to forms of disease and illness but also choices about which forms of care should be accessed. For example, cultural beliefs about certain forms of disease may lead to silence and denial thus creating  veritable grounds for the continuation of behaviours and actions that promote the disease (Human Rights Watch, 2002). Studies of the social meaning of infertility in Nigeria have shown that beliefs about infertility play a determinant role in interpretation and treatment of infertility. Following these beliefs, most people used three treatment outlets: ‘churches (spiritualists), traditional healers and hospitals (orthodox medical treatment)’ (Okonofua et al 1997:211). Gender inequality Gender inequality impacts the Primary Health Care system through its contribution to lower status, lack of empowerment, higher rates of illiteracy, and higher levels of poverty for women. As in the case of illiteracy, these factors translate into higher incidence of ill-health for women and paradoxically, their lower capacity to access health care. For example, women with less education have less control over their sexual activities and therefore also more affected by sexually transmitted diseases. For example, HIV/AIDS which is transmitted largely through sexual activities is more prevalent among women than among men. The relative lack of control over their sexual choices also means that many more women get pregnant than should be the case. This has implications for fertility and maternal mortality rates. Women therefore have a higher need to access health care especially at the PHC level. Only women generally tend to need the permission of men to access health facilities. Poverty is also higher among women in the population than men. These factors suggest that women will also have a lower capacity to meet their health needs even when facilities exist to provide for those needs. The urban – rural divide The urban – rural divide is implicated in the differences in living conditions between urban and rural areas, in the distribution of the population between the two areas and in several other factors. Differences in these factors impact upon the performance of PHC in a number of ways. First, it imposes different challenges on PHC in urban and rural areas. It has been observed for example, that living conditions, especially with respect to the availability of electricity, good roads, water, transportation, communication, poverty and quality of life tend to be much higher in urban than rural areas (Imoudu, 1995). The implication of this is  the tendency for PHC units to be better staffed and equipped in urban areas than rural areas. It is thus not surprising to find that storage facilities for drugs are better in urban areas than rural areas (Gupta et al, 2004). Professional health personnels are also more reluctant to accept postings to rural areas. Another implication is the pattern and distribution of the disease burden between urban and rural areas. Given the fact that urban areas have more PHC facilities and that other secondary and tertiary health care facilities tend to be located in them, the health needs of urban populations tend to be better served than those of rural areas. There will therefore tend to be more pressure on PHC facilities in rural areas. If we take into consideration the additional factor of higher poverty in the rural areas, the lower capacity of rural communities to access health care when they need it will translate into worse health indices in the rural areas than urban areas. However it should be noted that socio cultural factors also impact positively in human service delivery in the following ways. Traditional medicines have become part or alternatives were modern medicine has failed. That not all in certain areas use of socio cultural factors has enhanced social service delivery in the areas of ceremonies which bring in foreign exchange and general leading to an improved standard of life of the prior to the kuomboka ceremony of the lozi people of western province, roads are graded, buildings painted, the towns and villages cleaned hospitality industry also takes a new shape which is a plus in service delivery. CONCLUSION Socio cultural factors are norms, values, beliefs, material and non material objects that are passed on from one generation to another in any given society. As we looked at how socio-cultural factors affect the performance of Primary Health Care we have noted that socio cultural factors are crucial in any developmental aspect of a community The socio-cultural factors impacting on health will differ between societies and even within sub-cultures within the same society. The WHO has, for example, identified a number of socio cultural factors and conditions. The list of factors includes (i) cultural beliefs and taboos, (ii) gender inequality, and (iii)  the urban – rural divide. The socio-cultural factors impacting on health will differ between societies and even within sub-cultures within the same society. Cultural beliefs and taboos impact upon the performance of the Primary Health Care in several ways. First, they shape forms of behaviour that lead to certain health outcomes. Gender inequality impacts the Primary Health Care system through its contribution to lower status, lack of empowerment, higher rates of illiteracy, and higher levels of poverty for women. BIBLIOGRAPHY: 1. Dr. Festus Iyayi, (2009), Socio cultural factors impacting upon Primary Health Care in Nigeria, Department of Business Administration, Faculty of Social Sciences, University of Benin, Benin City, Edo State, Nigeria 2. Global Health Watch (2004) Global Health Action, edited by Whyte, A., McCoy, D and Rowson, M, Russell Press 3. Noyoo. N, (2000), Social Policies and Social Services in Zambia. UNZA Publishers, Lusaka, Zambia. 4. Oxford advanced learners dictionary (2002).